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Updated: 12 hours 50 min ago

Zorin OS 15 Core Released with Download Links, Mirrors, and Torrents

Monday 17th of June 2019 06:58:00 AM
ZorinOS 15 Core has been released on 5 June 2019. To be clear, the released edition now is the Core and Ultimate, gratis and paid versions, while the Lite and Education editions has not been released yet. It's released with an awesome video online. Here you can see what download sources available plus SHA256SUM and torrents. Enjoy Zorin!

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Zorin-OS-15-Core-64-bit.iso bf2233af0f081bca5f3fafedb1ea18dbc53ffe538ccf7debeb12badb6aba157a
Note: this hash checksum is not available on the official download page, nor the mirrors, not even the unofficial torrent provider. This is available on the Upgrade Guide page.

Official Download

The webpage providing them is This page also features newsletter subscription for you. You can contribute back to Zorin Project by caring about them.

Official Mirror

If you want to download anyway, obtain it directly from

OSDN Mirror

If Sourceforge server is slow for you perhaps, you can download from OSDN server instead

Internet Archive (Unofficial)

I uploaded the ISO and SHA5SUM on Internet Archive so everybody can download from worldwide. If you have no idea what is Internet Archive, read this. I hope this mirror helps you a lot.

Torrent Downloads (Unofficial)

There is no torrent download officially available from Zorin Project website. So, community can publish unofficial torrents and you can safely download one as long as valid checksum exists. Always verify the hash checksum of the file you have downloaded to make sure it's valid. You can also contribute by help seeding these torrents to the world.

Happy downloading!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Differences between Four Linux Mint Editions

Sunday 16th of June 2019 02:31:00 PM
 (The four Linux Mint editions)
If you look at the web, it's rare to find a resource to explain the differences between all 4 Linux Mint editions (Cinnamon, MATE, XFCE, and Debian). If you are looking for such explanation, then this brief article is for you. I hope you will find edition you love the most from GNU/Linux Mint. Enjoy!

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Four Editions
Talking about Mint is talking about either one of the four editions. These are similar to editions you saw on Windows XP, like, Home Edition and Professional Edition, except Mint distinguishes theirs based on desktop environment.
  • Linux Mint Cinnamon Edition, or LMCE here.
  • Linux Mint XFCE Edition, or LMXE here.
  • Linux Mint MATE Edition, or LMME here. 
  • Linux Mint Debian Edition, or LMDE here. 

1. Cinnamon Edition
This is the flagship edition. LMCE is the edition which the desktop environment is developed by Mint developers themselves. If you want to begin with Mint, you are suggested to choose LMCE as your first. LMCE offers Windows-like experience with everything made user friendly, like how the desktop layout is, the context menus, the file manager, the system tray, the theme and colors, and everything.

  • Latest version: 19.1 Tessa
  • Desktop environment: Cinnamon
  • Download:
  • Base distribution: Ubuntu
  • Repository: Mint + Ubuntu 
  • Compatible with PPA: yes
  • File manager: Nemo
  • Applications: LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, etc.
  • Package manager: (CLI: apt), (GUI: Synaptic, Software Center, Update Manager, Software Sources)
  • Alternative package manager: Flatpak
  • Backup feature: yes, with TimeShift

(Desktop's feature: standard Windows-like layout, Super key start menu, system tray & clock)
(File manager's features: multitabbed, split vertical, tree view, status bar, quick search)
2. MATE Edition
LMME is the second flagship of Mint operating system featuring MATE desktop environment. To give new comers bigger picture: Cinnamon is a GNOME 3 modification, while MATE is a GNOME 2 modification. Using LMCE is like using GNOME Shell system with Windows-like layout while using LMME is like using the old era of Ubuntu but with Windows-like layout. You see, using LMME will be less heavy than using the flagship LMCE.

  • Latest version: 19.1 Tessa 
  • Desktop environment: MATE (
  • Download:
  • Base distribution: Ubuntu 
  • Repository: Mint + Ubuntu 
  • Compatible with PPA: yes
  • File manager: Caja
  • Applications: LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, etc.
  • Package manager: (CLI: apt), (GUI: Synaptic, Software Center, Update Manager, Software Sources)
  • Alternative package manager: Flatpak
  • Backup feature: yes, with Timeshift

(LMME with start menu opened)
(LMME's file manager, Caja, with split vertical, multitabs, and list view mode)
3. XFCE Edition
LMXE is the lightweight edition of them all. Many users choose this one after trying out either LMCE or LMME. Just like the other two, LMXE is also heavily tweaked by Mint developers to look Windows-like. You can open the start menu with Super key, and the desktop layout.

  • Latest version: 19.1 Tessa 
  • Desktop environment: XFCE (
  • Download:
  • Base distribution: Ubuntu
  • Repository: Mint + Ubuntu 
  • Compatible with PPA: yes
  • File manager: Thunar
  • Applications: LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, etc.
  • Package manager: (CLI: apt), (GUI: Synaptic, Software Center, Update Manager, Software Sources)
  • Alternative package manager: Flatpak
  • Backup feature: yes, with TimeShift

(LMXE with start menu opened)
(LMXE's file manager, Thunar, with multitabs and list view (no split vertical feature))
4. Debian Edition
To put it simply, LMDE is Debian Cinnamon with Mint repository. Everything graphical here is the same as LMCE. The user interface is Cinnamon and the file manager is Nemo, nothing different. The only difference is that LMDE is built from Debian source code and does not use Ubuntu's repository. Instead, LMDE uses Debian's repository plus a special Debian-compatible repository maintained by Mint developers. The latest version, LMDE 3, is based on Debian 9 Stretch. You see, the reason behind this edition existence is solely a long-term preparation if someday Ubuntu won't exist anymore.

  • Latest version: 3.0 Cindy
  • Download:
  • Desktop environment: Cinnamon
  • Base distribution: Debian
  • Repository: Mint + Debian
  • Compatible with PPA: no
  • File manager: Nemo
  • Applications: LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, and more
  • Package manager: (CLI: apt), (GUI: Synaptic, Software Center, Update Manager, Software Sources)
  • Alternative package manager: Flatpak

(The sources.list is clearly different to the other three editions as LMDE based on Debian)
(All Mint editions do not include snap but flatpak instead)
Some Suggestions
To make everything easier for you, consider these:
  • If you really do not know which one to choose, choose LMCE.
  • If you have problem running LMCE, perhaps you computer is older, choose LMXE instead.
  • If you do not like GNOME 3 and want everything from GNOME 2 era back, choose LMME. 
  • If you love experimenting, choose LMDE. 
Happy working!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

An Overview to deepin 15.10 GNU/Linux

Friday 14th of June 2019 10:34:00 AM
 (deepin 15.10 with new feature Auto Merge on desktop)
For users who want to know latest deepin 15.10 before downloading it, this article is for you. In this version, deepin once again fulfills its commitment to be pretty and user friendly, as it brings a lot of new improvements in shapes and performance. Nw it introduces Auto Merge on desktop, along with new control for Sound Effects. The file manager got Advanced Search. It even got a new window manager, called dde-kwin, modified from KDE Kwin. And now it is rebased to Debian Stable instead of Unstable, for the users to get more timely security updates. I hope this short overview gives you enough information to finally try deepin 15.10. Enjoy!

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Obtain deepin 15.10
I have collected the download links official + mirrors + torrents here. Please be aware that it's only available in 64-bit version.

New Feature: Auto-merge
I see this as a new thing, as it reduces number of icons on desktop by their respective categories. To try this, I put some apps and documents and audios, and when Auto Merge is enabled, it hides all icons within 3 icons, and shows them again by click on the icons. I have not found this on either KDE or GNOME. Smart feature to reduce complexity!

Before: all icons shown. Auto Merge disabled.

(On the desktop: there are some MP3s, MP4s, ODTs, and apps)
After: Auto Merge enabled, all icons hidden under respective categories, represented by folders.
(Category icons shown: Pictures, Music, Applications, Videos, and Others)
Explode: click each category icon to show the hidden items in that category. Click all category icons to show all hidden icons.

 (Each category icon has down arrow logo)
New: Advanced Search
The file manager got improvements in the search feature. Now, it's with Advanced Options to filter more according to Locations (recursive or not), Size Range (<1MB, +/-10MB, >1GB), Type (Apps, Images, etc.), Time Range (today, yesterday, last month), and Time Modified.

New: Wallpaper Slideshow

Slideshow means we can determine wallpapers to change automatically each a period of time. We can choose between 1 minute to 1 hour.

New: Screensaver
Do you remember screensavers? These things of the past (from CRT monitors era) is now living again on deepin. On the save interface as wallpaper changer, you can select Screensaver page, and enable one you like with choices to activate it between 1 minute and 1 hour. And yes, you can also enable login password to protect your session.

New: Kwin DDE
Deepin Desktop Environment (DDE), the user interface of deepin OS, actually comes with its own window manager. But starting at this 15.10, deepin includes a new window manager, a modified KWin from KDE to empower DDE interface, so the interface may be still gorgeous by reducing CPU/RAM resources. This window manager is named dde-kwin. This is the component responsible for all window borders, transparency, and drop shadow we see at DDE. 

(System Monitor presents the process as kwin_x11 along with deepin-wm-dbus and kwin_no_scale)
Speaking about performance, briefly, my position is weak as my hardware is currently very old (Aspire One, Pentium, 4GB) but one thing clear I can say is with KWin-DDE it runs very heavy with default effects but smooth with effects disabled. So heavy that it needs seconds to open the sidebar or switch between running apps.

New: Sound Effects Control
Now we can disable particular sound effects among all of them in the new Sound Effects section on the sidebar. We can, for example, disable Notification and Empty Trash sounds.

The change is very big as the codename is now lion to replace the previous one panda. This is the result of the switch from Debian Unstable (Sid) to Stable (Stretch) as the basis of deepin 15.10. This way, as official release notes said, users will get more frequent security updates and fixes.

Initially, deepin never came with End User License Agreement (EULA) until it reached version 15.8. This 15.10 comes with a new EULA, updated 10 December 2018, in English and Chinese. To give you bigger picture, this means deepin uses EULA is following Red Hat Enterprise (PDF) and openSUSE (HTML). See also that CentOS (TXT) and Oracle OS (TXT) have EULAs as well. One thing clear to avoid any misunderstanding is: with or without EULA, all the free software within the GNU/Linux system + repository remain free software.

English version:

Chinese version:

To be honest, this practice, placing EULA on a GNU/Linux distro, is a strange thing for me as we know most software distributed within it are licensed as free software (meaning, not gratis, but you are free from agreeing to use it). But, fortunately, for me and everybody who want to know, FSF's explanation about this is very clear on GPL FAQ document section Click Through. I copied the text here:

Some software packaging systems have a place which requires you to click through or otherwise indicate assent to the terms of the GPL. This is neither required nor forbidden. With or without a click through, the GPL's rules remain the same.
Merely agreeing to the GPL doesn't place any obligations on you. You are not required to agree to anything to merely use software which is licensed under the GPL. You only have obligations if you modify or distribute the software. If it really bothers you to click through the GPL, nothing stops you from hacking the GPLed software to bypass this.

Final Thought
deepin keeps its commitment to be "... beautiful, easy to use, safe and reliable system for global users..." in 15.10 as it brings more improved interface in both beauty and performance.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Comparing LibreOffice 6.2 Versions: AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap

Thursday 13th of June 2019 08:04:00 AM
 (LibreOffice 6.2 running on Ubuntu from 3 different universal executable formats: AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap)
LibreOffice for GNU/Linux nowadays is available in 3 different universal formats, as alternative to the native format (DEB and RPM). This is an advancement that benefits us all greatly. Those 3 are AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap formats, sorted alphabetically. We, GNU/Linux users in many different distros, can obtain latest LibreOffice safely from one same source, by using one among these AFS methods. It is interesting for me to compare LibreOffice 6.2, the latest stable version now, by installation procedures, size, execution time, menubar, theme, access rights, and drag-and-drop. To make this comparison, I use Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit installed in Minimum Mode (without LibreOffice). I hope this comparison gives everybody good sight to both LibreOffice (the program) and AFS (the package formats). Let's see!

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Before You Read
If you didn't know about AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap (AFS) on GNU/Linux world, I suggest you to read first Askubuntu discussion for quick reading by table and Philip Vissenaekens' article for more.

1. Obtaining
How to get the software LibreOffice in these 3 formats to install them on Ubuntu? Simply go to and see the Download menu there.

(Download menu on the official webpage of LibreOffice)
The easiest one to install is AppImage as we download the file and run it. Simple, no other program required. But Flatpak or Snap requires us first to have either Flatpak or Snap client program.


Download the file, give it execution right, double-click, it runs. In other words, no installation and no command line required.


Install flatpak client, install Flathub repository, install LibreOffice, wait all processes to be finished, run LibreOffice.

Command lines:
$ sudo apt-get install flatpak
$ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
$ flatpak install flathub org.libreoffice.LibreOffice
$ flatpak run org.libreoffice.LibreOffice

Run installation command, it downloads the package(s), wait all process to be finished, run LibreOffice.

Command lines:
$ snap install libreoffice
$ snap run libreoffice
2. Size 
If we want a clear way to see total size of program file (including the dependencies, of course), AppImage is the best, as it comes in one file so it's quickest to calculate. Flatpak installs LibreOffice by pulling other additional packages, it shows size of each package, but not total size of them all. Snap installs LibreOffice by pulling other packages as well but without even showing total download size.

AppImage is the smallest one by 248MB.

Flatpak is the second biggest one as it needs total 519MB to download.

Snap is surprisingly the largest, it is 543MB.

3. Execution Time
AppImage runs in only 3s. Flatpak runs in 7s. And Snap runs in 13s. The fastest one here is AppImage version. I measured them by using time command line on  a fresh booted Ubuntu system.

(Measurement results using command lines)
4. Identity
To see whether a LibreOffice program is AppImage, Flatpak, or Snap, go to menubar Help > About and see the identifier.

For AppImage version, it doesn't say anything at all. No information that this software is built as AppImage or such thing.

For Flatpak version, it says "Flatpak" clearly after OS and before Locale details.

For Snap version, it says "snap" as part of the Build ID.

5. Desktop Menu
Start menu shows all icons in one place without distinction between them. So, Writer from Flatpak looks the same as Writer from Snap. And so on. But for this version, AppImage doesn't give option to put shortcut on start menu.

(We cannot distinguish which one from Flatpak or Snap unless we run it and see Help > About)
6. User Interface (Themes, Menubar, Taskbar)
It is a good thing that all versions present the same user interface. No difference in the themes (either it's dark or light one) menubar, and the Notebookbar. The only difference is how taskbar presents them as here the best one is AppImage. 


About user interface theme, no significant difference between the three versions on Ubuntu 18.04. See below, between dark and light themes among them.



No difference between all formats' menubars.


(Flatpak version)
(Snap version)

Tabbed (Ribbon) style menubar:

Also, as the 6.2 is the star or the new Notebookbar user interface (Ribbon-like), the Notebookbar menus looks the same between the three.

(AppImage)(Pay attention to the identifier on top panel: it reads LibreOffice Writer 6.2 with blue Writer logo)

(Flatpak)(See identifier on top panel: it reads LibreOffice with the white logo)
(Snap)(See identifier on top panel: it reads LibreOffice 6.2 with the white logo)

Vertical panel on Ubuntu will show those three, AFS, running like this GIF animation. Just like the top panel identifier above, it shows the logo and the program name, and the best here is still AppImage.

(From top: Flatpak version, Snap's, and AppImage's)
7. Save As Dialog & Access Rights
How they look are simply the same. But talking about access rights and mounting available partitions is different with Snap version.

Dialogs user interface:

As you can see below, there is no difference in the interface. But AppImage and Flatpak begins the directory at ~/Documents while Snap begins at ~/snap/libreoffice/121/.



Access rights:
AppImage can save to ~/Documents/ and ~/ but cannot save to /home.
Flatpak is the same.
Snap is different, it can save to ~/Documents but cannot save to ~/ and /home as well.

Mounting partitions
AppImage version can access both local folders (~/) and mount partitions by click.

Flatpak version can also access both locations.

Snap version can only access folders manually and cannot mount partitions by click. In other words,  we can only save to partitions manually by navigating to /media directory if the partition has already been mounted.

8. Drag And Drop Pictures
Drag-and-drop works perfectly in all formats. I tried to pull pictures from file manager and drop it to Writer, it works, on those three. 


Final Words
As an alternative to normal package installation on Ubuntu, these 3 package formats are good things for us all. Through Flatpak or Snap, any user in any GNU/Linux distros can install latest LibreOffice they wish and update them in that particular way. Through AppImage if they wish, it's easier to install and simpler to reuse the file on other computers, but to update the program they will need a separate program called AppImageUpdater. 

For Software Developers
For any other developers interested to distribute their free software applications in these 3 formats, follow documentations below. I wish by mentioning these, more free software will be available in AFS formats just like LibreOffice.

Enjoy LibreOffice!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Enable Dark Theme on elementary OS

Sunday 9th of June 2019 04:03:00 PM
 (Dark user interface on elementary OS)
To enable dark theme on elementary OS 5.0 "Juno", simply use Elementary Tweaks and set Prefer Dark Variant on. But there are more ways, using command line instead or install new dark themes. And the is one more thing, that is giving the Plank Dock dark theme as well. I use here themes like Elementary X, Deepin Dark, Flat Remix Yellow to show you several options we have today. Try it and happy working!

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Using Tweak Tool
Go to System Settings and open Tweaks section and turn on Prefer Dark Variant. Then close all running applications and start one. It must be in dark theme right now. If you do not have this tweak tool, install it first.

Using Command Line
Run this command line to switch to dark theme:
$ gsettings set io.elementary.terminal.settings prefer-dark-style true
And run this to revert back to light theme:
$ gsettings set io.elementary.terminal.settings prefer-dark-style false
Running those commands are the same as switching the buttons on the Tweak Tool above.

For Plank
By default, without installing any dock theme, simply switch the built-in theme to Matte. Hold Ctrl > right-click the dock > Preferences > switch it.

If you want custom theme, Elementary Dark by Childishgiant is good. To install it, simply extract the theme into ~/.local/share/plank/themes/ and switch it using dock preferences above.

Theme: Elementary X by Surajmandalcell (GTK3)

This is the theme I used as the screenshot above. Just download the and extract the folder into ~/.themes folder. If the folder does not exist, simply create it. To enable it, go to tweak tool again and switch it to elementary-x-master theme. These installation steps are the same to other themes below.

Theme: Deepin Dark by Umayanga (GTK3)

This theme is similar to the dark theme of Deepin OS.

Theme: Flat Remix GTK Yellow by Daniruiz06 (GTK3)

This is one among the colorful theme series. This yellow selection has several different versions and the borderless one is good.

More Themes!
Go to to find more GTK3 themes and also Plank dock themes. You will find many many more themes to try. Enjoy!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Publishing Online without WordPress: Instant, Libre, and Gratis

Friday 31st of May 2019 03:59:00 PM

 ( is one among simplest online web publishing services powered by free software)
This article presents several website publishing libre software, like Writeas and Hackmdio, with their own gratis services that you can instantly try as alternative to the service. They are instant (very easy to use), the software are libre (source code available in free licenses), and their official services are gratis (no cost to publish everything). As online writer, you may use their services to publish writings just like normal website but easier to access (no registration needed) and more private (you can write anonymously). As learner, you can try to install the software on your Ubuntu system, to tinker with the code. You can try them right now and find which one is the best for you. And further if you wish you can install them on Ubuntu. Happy writing!

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Write.asThe easiest-to-use web publishing service here is You can write anything and publish it right now without registration. You do not need to think about domain name or disk space anymore. The free software behind is named Writ:efreely, licensed under GNU AGPL, while the online service is available gratis.

Want to publish a writing written together by you and friends? Hackmdio is a collaborative writing service so you can write and publish an article together with friends remotely. Just create a new post, share the URL with friends, and start writing together. You can write anything and instantly publish it. The software you can download is named CodiMD, licensed under AGPL, while the online service is gratis without registration.

Etherpad.netEtherpad is a collaborative publishing tool and is good service you can use. You can think of Etherpad as simpler alternative to Hackmdio. Create new post, invite your friends with the URL, and start writing together online. Not only it can be used as simple blogging platform, but also it's good for education at school (e.g. together writing an exercise remotely).

Unlike WordPress, Jekyll is a static CMS, to publish writings in it you must use command lines, so it's not easy for most people. But thanks to Jekyllnow, you can publish writings in Jekyll without touching command lines, just use GitHub/GitLab web interface and commit and go. It's not as instant as Writeas or Hackmdio so I put it here in the last number.

Worth Mentioning
  • a blogging service from Telegram which is very similar to but easier to access than Writeas. It is the simplest among all here. The only problem is that the software is not available for download. I hope soon Telegram will release it under AGPL or other free license.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

ROSA, A Nice KDE4 Distro in 2019

Friday 31st of May 2019 07:48:00 AM
(ROSA R10 with KDE4 desktop running in 2019)
While Ubuntu doesn't have KDE4 anymore, a Mandriva-based GNU/Linux distro named ROSA from Russia continued to ship KDE4 even in 2019. It is ROSA Desktop Fresh R10 released in 2017 and supported until 2020. ROSA is one among three splits of Mandriva, other two are OpenMandriva and Mageia, happened right after 2011. We cannot run KDE4 anymore on Ubuntu today, but we can still run it on ROSA and get support. This article briefly highlights ROSA R10 for you. I wish anybody who wants a good distro with KDE4 in 2019 finally find what he/she wants. Enjoy!

In a nutshell

ROSA R10 KDE4 is a normal release (non-rolling) distro with LiveCD Installer ISO.

ROSA includes this set of software:

  • KDE4 as desktop environment
  • Dolphin as file manager
  • Firefox and Chromium as web browser 
  • LibreOffice as office suite
  • GIMP as image editor and Gwenview as image viewer
  • Clementine and Rosa Media Player as audio and video player
  • SimpleWelcome as start menu (application launcher)
  • StackFolder as quick access for files and folders on system tray
  • Rpmdrake as graphical package manager
  • Audacity and Kdenlive as audio and video editor

Important links regarding ROSA are here:

Download links:

1. Start Menu
The application launcher is in full screen. The shortcut key is Alt+F1 and not Super key. First time I saw it, I admire the icon theme instantly. They're gorgeous and I didn't find such icons on other distros yet.

(ROSA application launcher looks unique compared to Ubuntu's and it's pretty faster)
A little bit talking about performance, the start menu above runs really quicker and responsive than menu on Ubuntu Bionic Beaver. Try it. And ROSA system as a whole runs very smooth on my Pentium 4GB Acer Aspire One laptop.
2. Package Manager
Old Ubuntu ships with Synaptic, while ROSA R10 ships with Rpmdrake, both are GUI package managers. It's still as user friendly as the package manager of Mandriva even today in 2019. To Reload repository information, simply go to menubar File > Update Media > select four Main selections on top > Update > go to menubar File > Reload packages list. After that, search anything and give check mark and press Apply button to install it.

Some most up to date versions of packages in the repository today:

  • Firefox 66
  • Chromium Browser 73
  • LibreOffice 6.0
  • GIMP 2.10 and Inkscape 0.92 and Krita 4.0.4
  • Kdenlive and Marble 18.12
  • Scilab 5.5.1 and GNU Octave 4.2.1
  • VLC 3.0.4

(Rpmdrake Package Manager installing Firefox browser)
3. Workspace
Remember this one? The old, bottom panel Widgets selection. And the transparent folder view, and the translucent clock. And, the handle on right edge of the widget.

(A fresh KDE4 workspace with widgets)
And applications work just fine with this workspace in modern days.

(LibreOffice Writer, Calc, and Impress running with a menubar opened)
And, not to forget the amazing 3D Cube desktop effect. Plus, ROSA still supports different wallpaper and widgets for different desktops, while nowadays Plasma 5 doesn't.
(ROSA 3D desktop with start menu opened in one workspace and System Settings in another workspace)
4. File Manager
It's Dolphin. With everything available on left panel. This file manager can do you F3 (split vertical), Ctrl+I (select by keyword), Ctrl+F (search), Show in Groups, Sort by anything and in descending mode, and more.

(Dolphin file manager running well on ROSA)5. System Settings
It's Configure Your Desktop on start menu. You control panel is still like the golden old times with KDE4. Here you will find many configurations for KDE in general like Desktop Effects plus some system configurations like Firewall and Drakx Services, all are user friendly. We can determine which system component to connect to the network by click, and start/stop any service by click too, just as easy as that. Even we don't find such Firewall and System Services management by default on latest Ubuntu today.

(ROSA System Settings, Firewall manager, and Services manager running)
Difference to UbuntuTo mention brief difference between ROSA and Ubuntu:

  • It's developed by Russian company LLC NIC IT ROSA, while Ubuntu's developed by United Kingdom-based company Canonical.
  • It is based on Mandriva, Ubuntu is based on Debian.
  • Its package format is .rpm, Ubuntu's is .deb.
  • Its package manager are rpm and urpmi, Ubuntu's are dpkg and apt-get.
  • Its user interface is KDE4 (an older version before current KDE5), Ubuntu's are GNOME 3.

Some final words
This short review shows briefly how it looks like and how good looking it is for you. For former KDE4 fans, I believe ROSA will make you happy once again, as it's pretty stable and quick even on old hardware like mine. For users who seek unique yet glossy interface, ROSA is promising one for you, try it first and have a nice day. Just see the desktop effects and icon theme! As Ubuntu users perhaps we can still hope that someday there will be a PPA to provide ROSA desktop (the supported KDE4) available for Ubuntu. Anyway, ROSA is a nice KDE4 distro, which is rare now, in this modern days. Enjoy ROSA R10!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

What To Do After Installing Kubuntu 19.04

Thursday 30th of May 2019 02:57:00 PM
 (Welcome to the friendly desktop Kubuntu 19.04!)
Here's once again traditional article to help new users use Kubuntu 19.04 for their first time. This article suggests you some stuffs after you have installed Kubuntu successfully. I divided the materials into 3 parts, about file manager, System Settings, and workspace. You will find here quick guides to setup Dolphin as you wish, create new shortcut keys, and rearrange desktop to your needs, and more. In the end, I added short workaround to lock your folders safely using Kubuntu built-in Plasma Vault. Have fun with Kubuntu. Happy working!

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1. Your File Manager
  • Ctrl+M menubar
  • Sorting & Grouping
  • Tooltip preview
  • Global setup
  • Add folder shortcuts

(Dolphin with sort by type, grouping, list view, globally for all folders)
Show menubar: simply press Ctrl+M. Press it again to hide menubar.

Sorting & grouping: for example, to sort by type and group them, select menubar View > Sort by > Type, and then select menubar View > Show in groups.

Tooltip preview:  you may like tooltips just like on Windows Explorer, and you have it on Dolphin as well. Go to menubar Settings > Configure Dolphin > General > Behavior > Miscellaneous > enable Show tooltips > OK. See.

(Tooltip really helps)
Global setup: to make above sorting & grouping applied to all folders, go to menubar Settings > Configure Dolphin > General > Behavior > select Use common properties for all folders > OK.

Quick access: for example, you love your Downloads folder, so drag that folder and drop it under Home shortcut on left panel. Another example, you access Pictures folder often, so drag and drop it under Home on left panel.

2. Your System Settings
  • Startup applications
  • Show desktop Super+D
  • Rectangular Shift+Printscreen
  • Single Click and Double Click
  • Disable Effects and Compositing 

(How to change shortcut keys)
Startup applications: go to System Settings > Workspace > Startup and shutdown > Add program > type the name of program, e.g. KMail > select and OK > repeat for other programs you wish to run automatically every start.

Super+D: or you may spell it Win+D, make Show Desktop function

Shift+Printscreen: go to System Settings > Workspace > Shortcuts > Custom Shortcuts > Screenshots > Rectangular Region > there by default you will see Meta+Shift+Printscreen > change it into Shift+Printscreen > Apply > Reassign > OK.

Single-click and double-click: recent Kubuntu places double-click to open file, unlike old Kubuntu did. If you prefer single-click (yes, I also prefer this), go to System Settings > Workspace > Desktop Behavior > Workspace > Click Behaviour > select Single-click > OK.

Disable top-left corner effect: go to System Settings > Workspace > Desktop behavior > Screen edges > Kubuntu places corner by default on top-left, so right-click the top-left box there > select No Action > OK. Now when you push mouse cursor to top-left of screen, no window will "fly" anymore.

Disable compositing: if you wish to disable all animations, drop shadows, and translucency, go to System Settings > Hardware > Display and monitor > Compositor > unmark Enable compositor at startup > OK.

3. Your Workspace
  • Dark theme and Light theme
  • Menu list style
  • Icons on desktop
  • Icons on panel
  • Language
  • Speed monitor panel
  • Holidays on calendar
  • KNotes 

(Kubuntu workspace with icons on desktop, clock widget, and speed monitor panel)
Switch theme from Dark to Light: go to System Settings > Workspace Theme > Desktop Theme > choose Breeze (the light one) > OK.

List-style menu: right-click start menu > Alternatives > Application Menu > Switch.

Icons on desktop: simply drag-and-drop one application to desktop area and choose Link Here and repeat for another application.

Icons on panel: just like above, but put it on area between start menu and task manager.

Language: go to System Settings > Regional Settings > Language > Add languages... > select a language from the choices, e.g. Indonesia > click Add > language added > logout > login > now your user interface should changed into language you selected.

Speed monitor panel: simply create a new empty panel on top > add Network Monitor to it > make it auto-hide.

Holidays on calendar: right-click clock > Configure Digital Clock > Calendar > enable Holidays > now Holidays appeared as new menu > show Holidays > select region (country) you wish, e.g. Indonesia > OK > logout > login > now your calendar should show holidays correctly according to country selected. For example, if you follow this, you should find 17 August to be Indonesian Independence Day ("Hari Proklamasi Kemerdekaan").

(This is interesting, right?)
First-time setup KNotes: run KNotes > create new note > select folder available there > mark it > OK > new note created,

Bonus: Lock Your Folders!
Do you know you can lock folders with password on Kubuntu? See a Lock icon on system tray? That's Plasma Vault for you. The system is simple: create a new Vault folder > place files and folders you want to lock in there > lock it > now everything you put in there is locked and hidden unless you enter the Vault password.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Inkscape with Light and Dark Themes on GNOME Environment

Wednesday 29th of May 2019 04:27:00 PM
 (Inkscape with dark interface)
You can turn Inkscape user interface to dark thanks to your desktop settings. This short article compares between Light and Dark themes of Inkscape so you know how to switch theme and how good it is. I use Inkscape 0.92.3 under GNOME 3 user interface so I can switch the theme easily using Tweak Tool. Enjoy!

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1. Switch Theme
On GNOME desktop environment, run Tweak Tool, and change the default Adwaita theme to Adwaita-dark. To revert back, simply change it again to Adwaita.

2. Basic Look
Here's basically how Inkscape window looks under Light and Dark theme. Obviously, the dark theme emphasizes icons and menu's text better. Notice the black text on Light theme and white text on Dark theme.

3. Toolbox
Here's you can look closer how the toolbar looks like. The icons (left) look clearer on Dark theme.

4. Dialogs
One of the most frequently used dialog in Inkscape is the save dialog.

And then the sidebars dialog when detached.

And here's the about dialog looks like.

5. Menubar
Here's how the menubar looks like with submenu showing. Here, View > Show/Hide is a good example. The dark theme may help you emphasize all text to find everything quicker.

6. Sidebar
Here's the sidebar (Ctrl+Shift+E is a good example).

7. Context Menu
Trying to right-click an empty area will show you context menu. Dark theme helps emphasize the text.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Comparing Search between Nautilus and Nemo File Managers

Monday 20th of May 2019 03:52:00 PM
 (Nautilus and Nemo file managers)
We, desktop users, search our files with file managers. Search feature is so important we need it everyday. This short article compares the two famous file managers, Nautilus from GNOME and Nemo from Cinnamon, in their own search features. I compare things like Sorting feature, Advanced options, Bookmark, and several more, some with GIF animations. I will use versions of both that are available in Ubuntu 19.04 repository to present this comparison. Enjoy!

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    I use these versions of both file managers on Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo". 
    • Nautilus 3.32
    • Nemo 3.8.5

    Things compared
      • Button & Shortcut key
      • Default search
      • Speed
      • Information viewed
      • Instant search 
      • Sorting
      • Bookmark
      • Deep search

      1. Button and shortcuts
      Both Nemo and Nautilus accept either magnifier button or Ctrl+F to start search.

      (Left: Nautilus, right: Nemo)
      2. Default Search
      Without making any change, here's the default results of "pdf" search keyword.

       (Nautilus: by default, it performs full text search, meaning, search through text contained in every file)
      (Nemo: by default, it performs file name search, meaning, does not search through text in files)
      3. Speed
      Both are fast. And I love that.

      (Gif animation: Nautilus: how fast it to find everything)
      (Gif animation: Nemo: no less, it's also very fast to find anything)
      4. Displayed information
      Let's compare both results details.

      (Nautilus: columns viewed are Name, Size, Location)
      (Nemo: columns viewed are Name, Size, Type, and Location)

      To add more columns is easy in both file managers like below:
       (Nautilus to add more columns: click reversed-triangle button > Visible Columns > a new dialog appears > give check mark to Column Name available)

       (Nemo to add more columns: right-click column > select one column name available)
      5. Instant search
      Nautilus does not need Find button to search, but Nemo does need, as Nautilus instantly search as we type. It's almost similar to incremental search we know in Google Web Search as suggestions appear instantly once we type.

      (Gif animation: Nautilus does instant search once we type anything)
      (Gif animation: Nemo does not have instant search, but file name selection instead)

      6. Sort the result
      Nautilus cannot sort the result in each column, but Nemo can, either ascending or descending. This is the biggest difference between the two. This is the reason I want to write this comparison.

       (Gif animation: Nautilus found png files and displayed the results in three columns; no column can be sorted as indicated by Keyboard Status Monitor)
       (Gif animation: Nemo found png files and displayed the results in four columns; every column can be sorted either ascending or descending; this helps to find latest or oldest files quickly)
      7. Bookmark the result
      Nautilus does not have bookmark feature for search results, but Nemo does have. It's a unique feature as usually we have bookmark for address to show on the left panel, it's new to have it for search result.

       (Nautilus: no saving search result)
      (Nemo: save search result by clicking Star button)
      (Nemo: call previous searches by pressing Up or Down key)
      8. Deep search
      Nautilus is better here. It has more options to enhance search as we like. This way, we can search a certain keyword for either Files only or Folders only. That's amazing! Unfortunately, Nemo does not have such options even in its Preferences menu.
      (Nautilus: deep search based on Date and File Type)
      Both searches are very quick. The differences are shortly these: Nautilus search does not have Sorting while Nemo's does have. On the other hand, Nautilus does have Deep Search while Nemo does not. And, Nautilus search can not be bookmarked, while Nemo's can.

      Which one do you like better?
      Personally, I like Nemo search better than Nautilus search as I need to sort everything I find and I cannot do that with Nautilus. I love sort by Date/Descending as I use it everyday.

      Apparently, not only me saying this. I don't know why this once-existed feature removed in current versions of Nautilus, as normal interface provides sorting but search interface does not. I will not wonder if somebody ask "why not removing sort in the normal interface as well?" or such.

      How about you?

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Intro to Devuan GNU+Linux, A Great Operating System without Systemd

        Saturday 18th of May 2019 04:29:00 PM
        (Devuan 2.0 desktop LiveCD with XFCE user interface)
        Devuan GNU+Linux is the first free software operating system to promote Init Freedom campaign. Devuan is a modified Debian GNU/Linux without systemd init system. Devuan Desktop comes with XFCE and bunch of free applications such as LibreOffice and GIMP. Current Devuan release is 2.0 codenamed "Ascii" which is released in 2018. Devuan supports both PC 32-bit and 64-bit, as well as embedded computers like Raspberry Pi, Nokia 900, and so on. Devuan makes everything more interesting as it provides an SDK to enable programmers create new GNU/Linux distro and Refracta Installer to enable casual users create a remaster or a custom LiveCD. To make you even more interested, thanks to Devuan, now we see new distros like Etertics and Maemo Leste, both as desktop and mobile OSes, developed without systemd. This intro article explains in brief what is Devuan, where to get it, the init system used, the desktop, and several more things. Finally, I hope you will give Devuan a try and like it.

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

        1. Name and Versions
        Devuan GNU+Linux is its official name. The name "Devuan" comes from Debian and VUA (Veteran Unix Admins) hence Devuan, as described by the official explanation. Devuan purpose is to promote a concept they describe as Init Freedom, by creating a modified Debian operating system completely free from systemd. 

        Devuan slogan is "Software freedom, your way". Official web page shows its logo with the slogan as well as the Init Freedom logo with slogan "Watch your first step!". 

        (Devuan logo)
        (Init Freedom campaign logo)

        Devuan versions so far are:
        • 2.0 "Ascii"
        • 1.0 "Jessie"
        • Beowulf (testing release, currently equal to Debian "Buster")
        • Ceres (rolling release, currently equal to Debian "Sid")
        Currently, in May 2019, those four are the available versions of Devuan OS. The latest stable release is the 2.0, codenamed Ascii, so when you hear "Devuan Ascii" it means Devuan version 2.0, and so on. See more here.

         (Devuan 2.0 "Ascii" with kernel version 4.9 running from a usb stick as permanently-installed system)
        For next release of Devuan, it follows Debian release rule, as new packages in Ceres at a time will be published as Beowulf and later on Beowulf at a time will be released as new stable release version 3.0 to succeed 2.0 when it's ready.

        2. Download Devuan
        Devuan is available at in both direct and torrent links. As usual, I highly recommend you to download using torrent links instead.


        3. Main Difference to Debian and the Init System
        The difference is its init system: Debian uses systemd, while Devuan uses sysvinit.

        Sysvinit is the init system of choice of Devuan as replacement to Systemd. It is the main part of the Init Freedom campaign Devuan made to free users from systemd. This means all components in Devuan made so they do not depend on systemd, like Thunar and KDE, although such components on other distros might heavily depend on systemd today. That is what made Devuan very interesting.

        Several important components are also integrated:
        • Eudev (modified udev by Gentoo Project) as replacement to udev is the hardware device manager of Devuan 2.0. 
        • Elogind (also by Gentoo Project) is preinstalled in Devuan 2.0 as replacement to logind. Elogind is a modification of logind from systemd, so that everybody does not use systemd can still use KDE and GNOME that are depend on systemd.

          (dpkg -l command line showing details of sysvinit, eudev, and elogind packages installed)
          As a result, there are now several new distros developed based on Devuan as they want to derive Debian without systemd. For example, heads (Tails without systemd), Etertics (new libre distro with Linux-libre kernel from Latin America), and planned future release of Dyne:bolic (a libre distro like Trisquel but specialized for multimedia), and more here.

          (A new promising distro from Latin America, Etertics, is derived from Devuan)
          4. Architecture Support and ISO Images
          Devuan as a whole supports 5 different computer architectures:
          • i386
          • amd64
          • arm64
          • armhf
          • armel 

            This means it supports Personal Computer (PC) both 32-bit and 64-bit, you can use Devuan as daily desktop or laptop system. For Devuan 2.0, the Desktop Live images sized 1GB, while the Installer images sized 4GB (dvd), 600MBx3 (cd), and 300MB (netinst), for each architecture. See below for more explanation.

            ( is your friend to find all ISO images of Devuan)
            Aside from desktop, Devuan also supports Raspberry Pi computers version 2 and 3, Beaglebone Black, and Odroid. Even Devuan supports computers that can run Maemo OS, mainly Nokia N900 and Motorola Droid 4. Interestingly, one new distro developed, called Maemo Leste, because Devuan supports these devices. Please bear in mind that Devuan is actively developed now so it's very interesting for you to get support and updates on such devices without systemd. These embedded images are sized approximately 150-200MB each for every architecture.

             (Download page of all embedded installers of Devuan including Raspberry Pi images)
            However, Devuan is available in 7 different kinds of installer:
            • desktop-live: this is what desktop users want (example)
            • minimal-live: command-line based LiveCD (example)
            • netinst: small installer, online, command line-based (example)
            • cdrom: 3 CD-sized ISOs (example)
            • dvd: 1 full-sized ISO (example)
            • embedded: installer for ARM computers like Raspberry Pi, Beaglebone Black, and Odroid mentioned above (example)
            • virtual: vm images to install in QEMU and VirtualBox (example)
            See more here.

            5. Installation and Booting Screen
            Devuan installer is Refracta, an alternative to Ubuntu's Ubiquity and Manjaro's Calamares, system installer. Refracta is described both as a system installer and remastering tool. For you accustomed to install Ubuntu and Manjaro, installing Devuan might challenging, as the installer is quite unique and honestly still not well documented yet. However, by reading carefully every step, personally I can successfully install Devuan on a usb stick in 20 minutes or so.

            (Refracta is installing Devuan with two separate window, a dialog and a console, and running like that for the rest of process)
            Here's Devuan bootloader looks like. I installed Devuan 2.0 on a 16GB flash drive. This screenshot was taken using QEMU virtual machine.

            (How Devuan booting screen will look like on your computer after successfully installed)
            6. LiveCD
            As mentioned above, Devuan provides Live Edition (just like Debian and Ubuntu do) so you can run it fully by booting without installing it to the computer. LiveCD edition comes with XFCE User Interface. It comes with two accounts described below so you will not forget while running LiveCD.

            First account:
            Username: devuan
            Password: devuan

            Second account:
            Username: root
            Password: toor

             (Release notes file is included in the operating system; it includes default username and password of Devuan)

            7. Desktop and Applications
            Devuan is an XFCE distro by default just like Xubuntu. Run a live session and you will see the mouse. However, it provides Plasma, GNOME, Cinnamon, and MATE in its repository.

            (Devuan 2.0 running with XFCE interface with top panel and bottom dock while showing Thunar file manager)

            All menus of Devuan 2.0 look like this in one picture. Here you will know what applications are available preinstalled on it.
            (Start menu from Settings to System of Devuan)
            Applications preinstalled by default are enough for daily desktop use. It's surprising to have these in only a 1GB ISO image.
            • LibreOffice
            • Firefox ESR web browser
            • mutt email client
            • Orage Calendar
            • GIMP
            • Ristretto
            • Mousepad Text Editor
            • Evince PDF Reader
            • VLC Video Player
            • Quad Libet Audio Player
            • Xfburn Burner
            • Xarchiver Archive Tool
            • Refracta Installer and Remastering Tool
            • Synaptic Package Installer
            • GParted Partition Editor

            Can desktop applications work? They work very well. See below, Inkscape vector image editor, GIMP raster image editor, OpenShot video editor, and GNU Octave mathematical analysis running just fine.

            How about drag and drop? Drag and drop from file manager to GIMP Image Editor works well. No difference to LibreOffice and other programs as well.

            Package availability: Synaptic says it's 50,000 packages available. Considering Devuan started at 2014, with such wide architectures support, it's already an amazing number.
            (Synaptic is preinstalled by default and it just works)
            8. File Management, Networking, and Browsing
            The file manager is Thunar from XFCE, of course. It's small and fast, multitabbed, easy to use file manager.

            No automount: Devuan does not have automount in Thunar file manager as it removed D-Bus, a component used in many distros to provide "disk automount" feature, and as you may have guessed, it's tightly related to systemd. However, of course Thunar's still can work perfectly with partitions and disks although you need to click to mount or unmount them.

            (SIGNUS, my usb stick, opened in Thunar file manager without any problem)

            Default network manager is Wicd, not GNOME NetworkManager, as the package network-manager depends on systemd. However, in short, connecting to WiFi and LAN works very well with it. Although it's honestly different if we already accustomed to NetworkManager, for example,
            • for USB tethering, after enabling it on your phone, you need to configure the interface on Wicd from eth0 to usb0, and then refresh, and click Connect button.
            • for Wifi, do not forget to click Connect and enable 'automatically connect' option for convenience.
            • successfully established connection shows IP address on status bar on the bottom of Wicd window. Otherwise it's not connected.

            (Wicd successfully connecting my Devuan to a WPA2/PEAP/MSCHAPv2 wifi service)
            Browser brought to you by Devuan 2.0 is Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release). Preinstalled Firefox ESR version is 52 but you can upgrade to 60 from the repository. Browsing is just fine, video and audio playbacks (I tested Invidious) work as normal, add-ons are fine also.

            (Playing video on Invidious website using Firefox ESR works very well)
            9. Repositories, Mirrors, and Package Search
            Devuan repository is organized just like Debian's, it's divided to main, contrib, and nonfree sections; but the default configuration uses only main section. Each release repository is also divided in three sections, $release, $release-updates, and $release-security. You will see these in your /etc/apt/sources.list configuration file.

             (Default Devuan 2.0 sources.list configuration)
            Sources.list: as example, for Devuan 2.0 codenamed "ASCII", the sources.list file will look like below.
            deb ascii          main
            deb ascii-updates  main
            deb ascii-security main
            Another example, for Devuan 1.0 codenamed "Jessie", the sources.list will look like this instead.
            deb jessie          main
            deb jessie-updates  main
            deb jessie-security main
            Official documentation regarding this configuration is the Sources.list page.

            Mirrors: today, Devuan has 19 worldwide repository mirrors as indicated by mirror_list.txt file.

            Package search: just like, Devuan now has, a special search engine for packages in repositories of Devuan. You can search a particular package by keyword either in a particular release (1.0, 2.0, Beowulf, Ceres), or, in any release (all results shown in one page).

            (Showing availability of inkscape in multiple releases of Devuan is very easy)
            Download speed: using the default mirror I got some 1MB/s or more on broadband connection. It's really convenient I feel.

            10. Documentation, Development, and Donation

            Documentation: first step towards Devuan is good with its OS web page. This page explains briefly the purpose of Devuan as well as everything about its versions, how to get it, and more.

            (Official brief explanation of Devuan operating system)
            Next step is of course to read the documentation by Dev1fanboy and visit the Forum. See also the wiki.

            However, in general, all documentations of Debian can be applied to Devuan too. So you can visit Debian Documentation center if you do not find something on Devuan's documentation.

            (Debian Documentation website)
            Development: Devuan is in active development. I believe it will be interesting for anybody who disagree with systemd to lend Devuan a hand. See the mailing list and IRC #devuan-dev on Freenode, see also Bug Tracker, and the source code center. To join the team, you can read Development page first.

            (A page from bug tracker showing list of bug reports and discussions of eudev program)
            (Mailing list of Devuan development showing developers discussions)

            Do you want to develop a new GNU/Linux distro? Devuan provides you an SDK to make it real. Mentioned distro like Maemo Leste is made using this SDK. Visit to know more.

            Donation: Everybody can help Devuan development by donating here Currently, Devuan accepts donation via wire transfer, BitCoin, and PayPal.

            My Computer System
            I use Acer Aspire One laptop with a 64-bit Pentium processor and 4GB of RAM to test Devuan. I installed it on a 16GB usb stick and not on a hard disk drive and it runs very well.

            Final Words
            I hope this article introduces you well to Devuan, a modified Debian without systemd, the first GNU+Linux Desktop to implement Init Freedom campaign. I think Devuan will make a big change, as a new basis just like Debian, as indicated by its stable base system now, and by its promising derivatives like Etertics and Maemo Leste, both in desktop and mobile worlds. What make it more interesting is the Distro Kit SDK so we now are easier to make new operating system derivatives without systemd off Devuan.

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            How To Completely Remove XFCE Desktop from Mint XFCE 19.1

            Saturday 11th of May 2019 01:46:00 PM
            A friend from a community gave me an idea after last article to remove XFCE from Mint XFCE "Tessa". Thanks to him, I searched, and I did a removal that works on that Mint which already have additional KDE and GNOME installed. The XFCE components (no less than 50) are all gone, including Thunar File Manager and XFCE4 Session, resulting in a feeling like removing just one application. This tutorial is intended for users who want to remove the desktop environment and ready for the risk. Happy working!

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            The plan is first to have an alternative GUI, in this case the small lightweight Openbox WM, and performing the complete removal, and finally installing back some Mint system-related programs. This tutorial will not and is not supposed to remove Xorg (Mint's display server), Lightdm (Mint's login screen), and APT (Mint's package manager). You are free to perform just the removal if you wish.

            1. Install Openbox
            This is so you will have at least a working GUI after removal of the XFCE GUI. If you don't do this, your Mint system will works only with CLI (e.g. tty screen). If you wish something other than Openbox, see the KDE + GNOME tutorial.
            $ sudo apt-get install openbox

            2. Remove XFCE
            This command line will list all packages with xfce in their names, take only the package names, and feed those package names in to a special apt-get purge command line. This way you do not need to remove every one of those 50+ package names one by one.
            $ dpkg -l | grep .xfce. | xargs sudo apt-get purge --auto-remove --yes
            Some explanations:
            • dpkg -l  lists all installed packages
            • grep .xfce.  filters so that only packages with keyword xfce within their names listed
            • xargs  changes multiple line input from previous command to be single line input for next command
            • sudo apt-get purge  removes listed packages from input
            • --auto-remove  tries to remove dependency packages too
            • --yes  makes apt-get automatically answers yes for everything

            For troubleshooting purpose, you can add one more pipeline command at the end  | tee --append removal.txt  to record the whole removal process in a plain text named removal.txt.

            3. Final Check
            This command should show nothing if it's true that all XFCE components were successfully removed.
            $ dpkg -l | grep .xfce.
            Try to logout and check whether XFCE session doesn't exist anymore from session choice menu.

            4. Install Back Some
            This steps is safe to abandon, but if you wish some Mint-related components that were removed above, you are free to install them back.
            $ sudo apt-get install mintdesktop mintsystem mintwelcome


            Anticipating Ubuntu 19.10 on May 2019

            Tuesday 7th of May 2019 06:49:00 AM
            (Ubuntu "Eoan" 19.10 development version running peacefully in May)
            Ubuntu 19.10 codenamed "Eoan" is supposed to be released next October this year. But in May we already can download the ISO image. It continues the previous names of Artful, Bionic, Cosmic, and Disco. And further we can also see the contents of that ISO without even downloading nor running it on our computer by just reading the corresponding manifest file. This short article is for new testers who want to see several information including the desktop, programs versions, and more. This way, it will be interesting for everybody to see and start test Eoan daily build ISO and further to help report issues to the developers. Finally, welcome for Eoan and happy testing for you!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            • Download
            • Desktop
            • Codename and development
            • ISO and Manifest
            • Detailed info
            • Bug reports
            • Next thing...

            You can download Eoan ISO Image from cdimage server today. Please remember that it is a developmental software and not supposed to replace your working stable Ubuntu system. I suggest you to run Eoan as LiveCD only, or install it in a Virtual Machine (QEMU, VirtualBox), or install it on a spare computer.

            Here's the desktop running from a LiveCD session. The desktop looks not different to 19.04 "Disco Dingo". However, all the wallpapers come from Disco Dingo and there is no new one at this moment.

            (Desktop menu view with Sunset of Peloponnesus wallpaper by Simos Xenitellis as the background)
            (App overview with Cramond Island wallpaper by Keanu Kerr as the background)

            Codename & development
            Today the codename is already half-known, it is "Eoan", but we still don't have any official publication of the animal name yet. Whether it will be "Eoan Elephant" or "Eoan Eel" or "Eoan Eagle" or something else we still don't know. But a Launchpad page clearly shows that it is "Eoan Ermine". If you want to know what kind of animal is it, see Animalia site, it's basically a weasel. Both Ubuntu cdimage server and Mark Shuttleworth's personal website didn't publish the animal name yet, even today, even with Launchpad publishes that Ermine name. This codename "Eoan" is known first by Dimitri John Ledkov announcement on ubuntu-devel-announce mailing list last April.

             (The brand-new shining orange header of cdimage server shows "Eoan EANIMAL")

            Some plans for 19.10 from the announcement Eoan is open for development published by Dimitri John Ledkov on ubuntu-devel-announce mailing list:
            • gcc 9 : so when we install gcc we get version 9 by default
            • glibc 2.30 : if GNU Project released it in next August or later, Ubuntu will use it as default C Library
            • openjdk 11 : so when we install openjdk we get version 11 by default, but we still can choose version 8 or 13 as well
            • python 3.7 as the default, while python 2 will be moved from main to universe repository
            • icu to be upgraded to 64.2 or newer and to support the new Japan era Reiwa

            We can see how the developers discuss Eoan development on Ubuntu Community Forum and ubuntu-devel-discuss mailing list. You can send your comments there.
            (Public mailing list archive of ubuntu-devel-discuss in May)
            While not directly related to Eoan, Ubuntu Unity Remix team also has discussion about Unity development on Eoan right now in the same forum.

            ISO and Manifest Files
            At 5 May 2019, the famous Ubuntu's cdimage server publishes its daily-built ISO image along with its manifest file. The ISO file name is eoan-desktop-amd64.iso with timestamp 2019-05-05. The size is 2.0GB at this moment. This is the ISO image I use for this article.

            (cdimage server download page of Ubuntu daily-built ISO)
            Reading the manifest file informs us what packages and what versions are included in the ISO image. From 5 May manifest, as example below shows, we know that the ISO includes LibreOffice version 6.2.3 with all modules except LibreOffice Base.

            (Gedit text editor opens the manifest file and finds out libreoffice-related packages listed)
            • LibreOffice Version From the manifest file, the version is 6.2.3. Modules installed built-in are Writer, Calc, Impress, Draw, and Math, just like usual.
            • Firefox Version From the manifest file, it's 66. It will surely change as Firefox is one among most rapidly updated free software we have in this world.
            • Kernel Version From the manifest file, it's It will surely change as well.
            • GNU Version GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) version is 8.3.0.
            • GNOME Desktop Version It is 3.32.1.
            • Nautilus File Manager Version It is 3.32.0.

            Detailed Info
            At the moment, here's information we can get by running LiveCD session. Release field shows "19.10" and Description field shows "Ubuntu Eoan EANIMAL" both are correct. Kernel version is

             (Just like usual, lsb_release -a and uname -a are important to see)
            Bug Reports
            Amazingly, bug reports for 19.10 are already present on Launchpad and today there are several of them. For example, see bug #1826691, latest bug today, reported by Jason Pritchard.

            (Bug reports and discussions of Ubuntu Eoan on Launchpad website)
            If you want to report a bug as a beginner, it's best to follow what QA Tracker site guides, that is using built-in program ubuntu-report. See the instruction here. For example, if you found issue with Nautilus you believe it's bug, run command ubuntu-bug nautilus and follow the next steps. Another example, if you found issue with GDM as bug, you run ubuntu-bug gdm3 and follow the rest.

            Next thing... Welcome!
            This will not represent exactly the final release of 19.10 next October. It's still pretty far and we need to wait. However, as a testing operating system it feels very good and is not different to 19.04 stable. For testers, bug report is open on Launchpad. For curious users, you can install 19.10 on a spare computer to explore everything without worries. Last but not least, I hope this anticipation article encourages you much to test and enjoy it. Finally, I want to say welcome to Eoan Ermine!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE and GNOME on Mint 19.1

            Saturday 4th of May 2019 04:34:00 PM
             (Mint 19.1 with GNOME 3 user interface)
            This tutorial introduces how to install KDE Plasma and GNOME desktop environments on Mint 19.1 "Tessa". As you may know, Mint since 2018 abandoned their KDE Edition (the last Mint KDE Edition is 18.3), and since the very beginning never released GNOME edition. Many of us perhaps prefer to have KDE or GNOME on their Mint system so this is tutorial you can use. I use Mint XFCE Edition 19.1 to practice this and I recommend you to start with this edition as well. Finally, happy installing and have a nice day!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            Simply install GNOME by running this command line:
            $ sudo apt-get install vanilla-gnome-desktop
            This needs at least 100MB of data on a freshly-installed Mint XFCE 19.1 system.

            Select display manager:
            You need to accept the gdm3 as your display manager. Simply use arrow key to select it and press Enter and let the installer finishes everything up.

            • Select your username
            • Click gear icon
            • Select GNOME on Xorg
            • Click Login button

            And finally this is GNOME showing on Mint XFCE 19.1. At this moment, as 19.1 is actually using Ubuntu 18.04 repository, the GNOME version installed here is 3.28.

            (Mint GNOME Edition in 2019)
            Simply install KDE by this command line:
            $ sudo apt-get install kde-standard kwin sddm sddm-theme-breeze plasma-nm
            This needs around 300MB of data on a freshly-installed Mint XFCE 19.1.

            Select display manager:
            Select sddm as display manager of choice.

            Reboot your Mint computer.

            • Select Plasma from session choices.
            • Select your username.
            • Type your password 
            • Click Login button.

            Here's how KDE Plasma looks on Mint 19.1. Just like explanation above, Plasma version installed here is 5.12.

             (Mint KDE Edition lives once again in 2019)
            Happy working!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Unity Desktop on Ubuntu 19.04

            Thursday 2nd of May 2019 07:17:00 AM
            (Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo" with Unity desktop)
            Good news for us that Unity7 desktop environment works very well on Ubuntu 19.04. We can install it right now without any third-party repository. I find that this desktop works pretty faster than the built-in GNOME 3.32 desktop one, at least on my laptop. I include many screenshots to reveal how good Unity7 works on 19.04 below including the HUD, the Login Screen, and the System Tray. I hope this works for you too! Happy working!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            Install the desktop:
            Run this command:
            $ sudo apt-get install unity-session
            Install the login screen:
            Run this command:
            $ sudo apt-get install lightdm
            And using TAB key select lightdm between "gdm3" and "lightdm" choices there, and press ENTER key to go.

            The desktop we once loved comes back with the Dash Menu and left Launcher we all knew:

            (Ubuntu 19.04 feels like 16.04 just right)
            With the Head's Up Display (HUD) working so amazingly with menu-oriented applications:

             (HUD works with LibreOffice Writer; press Alt to reveal the HUD; HUD can search you "footnote" and execute it for you without you clicking on the Writer's menu bar)
            (HUD also works with Inkscape Vector Graphic Editor; the HUD was/is great to execute your frequently used Inkscape's extension just by searching without manually clicking Inkscape's menubar) 
            (Calling out menu "blur" in GIMP Image Editor is never easier indeed than using HUD just by typing "blur" and Enter; and this GIMP running as AppImage program!)
            And with the system tray and calendar and power button we accustomed with:
            (Tray programs like Telegram Desktop, OnionShare File Sharing, Remmina Remote Desktop, and Kazam Screencast Recorder running and displayed correctly in the right place; clock and calendar widget displayed just like it used to; power off menu we used for more than 6 years)
            And finally the login screen should also changed into the one we all knew:

            (LightDM Display Manager on Disco Dingo, the cool login screen we once loved)
            Thank you all Unity7 developers especially dale and khurshid. for maintaining such awesome desktop we can use in 2019. Now we are waiting to run same Unity7 on the next Ubuntu 19.10 codenamed Eoan. Happy working!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Download Links of Linux Mint 19.1 "Tessa" All Editions and Checksums

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 04:41:00 PM
            The latest Linux Mint release 19.1 codenamed "Tessa" was released on Wednesday, 19 December 2018. It's based on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS and supported until 2023. For you wanting to download it now, here's list of all editions' download links along with the checksums. Happy downloading!

            Important Links

            Cinnamon Edition


            MATE Edition


            XFCE Edition


            b580052c4652ac8f1cbcd9057a0395642a722707d17e1a77844ff7fb4db36b70 *linuxmint-19.1-cinnamon-32bit.iso

            bb4b3ad584f2fec1d91ad60fe57ad4044e5c0934a5e3d229da129c9513862eb0 *linuxmint-19.1-cinnamon-64bit.iso

            ca86885e2384373f8fbb2121e2abb6298674e37fc206d3f23661ab5f1f523aba *linuxmint-19.1-mate-32bit.iso

            5bc212d73800007c7c3605f03c9d5988ad99f1be9fc91024049ea4b638c33bb4 *linuxmint-19.1-mate-64bit.iso

            039d619935c2993e589705e49068a6fa4dc4f9a5eb82470bc7998c9626259416 *linuxmint-19.1-xfce-32bit.iso

            7b53b29a34cfef4ddfe24dac27ee321c289dc2ed8b0c1361666bbee0f6ffa9f4 *linuxmint-19.1-xfce-64bit.iso

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Debian 9.9 GNU/Linux Released along with Live Editions and Download Links

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 04:28:00 PM
            Debian GNU/Linux 9.9 "Stretch" released on Saturday, 27 April 2019. It is the ninth major update of the ninth major release of Debian operating system. It brings the installation ISO, along with six Live Desktop Editions (equal to Ubuntu's Flavors), each supports both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. I listed here both direct and torrent links of them. Happy downloading!

            Important Information

            Debian (installonly)


            Note: DVD-1 ISO is enough to install a Debian operating system.

            Debian Live Editions (livecd)

            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE Applications 19.04 from Snap Store for Kubuntu Users

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 03:10:00 PM
            (Kig and KolourPaint running as Snaps from KDE Applications 19.04 on Kubuntu)
            Great news announced on 18 April 2019 by KDE neon developers that KDE Applications 19.04 has been released for all GNU/Linux distros through Snap Store. This means KDE Project released their latest bundle of awesome, unique applications we know like Gwenview, Okular, Kig, KolourPaint, and so on in one time. And we in every GNU/Linux distro, as long as we have Snap installed, can install those applications without waiting our respective distro to provide them to us. Finally, happy installing!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            What is this?
            First, we know KDE (more precisely the name is Plasma) is our desktop environment we find on Kubuntu. Second, KDE Community does not just develop Plasma Desktop, but also all awesome programs in one set called KDE Applications and released regularly as source code every a period of time. Third, we have now many different GNU/Linux distros such as Kubuntu itself and Fedora and openSUSE and so on while every distro differs in their pace in providing KDE Applications bundle as binary code (i.e. packages). This story tells you that even though your distros are different, you can by now get all the KDE Applications since they are released on the universal platform for GNU/Linux called Snap Store.

            Snap Store and KDE
            If you go to you will find the official store by KDE to provide you KDE Applications. You may find there, at this moment, no less than 50 applications already available. Yes, they are all Snap applications, meaning, can be installed in every GNU/Linux distro.

            Applications available
            By now (30 April 2019) there are 52 KDE Applications available as Snaps in the Snap Store. Among them are Gwenview, Okular, Kig, KGeography, Step, Skrooge, and so on.

            Checking availability from Kubuntu
            For example, on Kubuntu 19.04, to check Gwenview availability as latest version, run:
            $ snap info gwenview

            To check availability for KGeography, run:
            $ snap info kgeography

            Install applications
            To install applications available in the Snap Store, simply run command line like this:
            $ snap install kgeographyIf you want to install more than one at once, simply combine the command lines like this:
            $ snap install gwenview kgeography kig step kolourpaint
            Run applications
            To run applications you installed from Snap Store, simply run them from your start menu. For example, here's a screenshot of Step (physics simulator) and Kalzium (chemistry, periodic table explorer), both from KDE Applications 19.04, running on Kubuntu 19.04.

            If you prefer command line, simply run them similarly to those installation commands above. For example:
            $ snap run step
            $ snap run kalzium


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            deepin 15.10 GNU/Linux Download Links, Mirrors, and Torrents

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 07:02:00 AM
            (deepin 15.10 desktop running from a LiveCD session with its System Info opened on right panel)
            deepin 15.10, the gorgeous Debian-based desktop operating system, has been released at Sunday, 28 April 2019. The ISO image size is now 2.3GiB. As usual, I listed here official download link with several countries' mirrors, torrents from several sources, and the checksums. However, the release number is identical to Ubuntu 15.10 "Wily Werewolf" but don't worry, they are separate things. Happy downloading!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            All about deepin: 15.8 Download | 15.7 Download | 15.6 Download | 15.4 Download | Review

            Quick Guide
            • To download using torrent link, use Transmission BitTorrent program.
            • To verify between your downloaded ISO and checksum here, follow the checking guide.
            • No matter from where you downloaded a torrent, as long as the checksum values matched, the ISO file you have should be OK. 
            • To make deepin GNU/Linux bootable USB, follow bootable making guide
            • To run the LiveCD session, choose "failsafe" on the boot screen.



            Thanks to all community contributors who have shared deepin 15.10 torrents!

            Official Server

            United States










            387b1533522af0d0ca01b0714859f5ca0839ad9c0dc5eb8da7aad82b59da7120  deepin-15.10-amd64.iso

            34aefe9ef57c13200570e0a670921cca  deepin-15.10-amd64.iso

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Compilation of 32-Bit GNU/Linux Distros with MATE Desktop in 2019

            Monday 29th of April 2019 03:56:00 PM
             (Trisquel 8.0, a MATE desktop distro that still support 32-bit in 2019)
            Because Ubuntu and all Official Flavors officially stopped providing 32-bit ISO Images in 2019, I write this compilation. I believe even in 2019 many of us still have old, 32-bit computers or laptops, so it's good to find GNU/Linux distros that support 32-bit. Here you will find at least thirteen GNU/Linux distros with MATE Desktop still supporting 32-bit in 2019, namely, Trisquel 8.0, Uruk 2.0, Fedora 29, Mint 18 and 19, Debian Live 9, Devuan 2.0, Sparky 5.3, Mageia 6, Porteus 4.0, Robo 8.11, Ubuntu MATE 18.04, Void (rolling), and IGOS 12. You can download them and install and have updates in a certain period of time. All of them are LiveCD Installers except Devuan and Mageia. I wish this compilation helps you to find latest distro and prolong support lifetime for your old computers. Finally, happy downloading!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            Read also similar compilation for all distros in 2018

            1. Trisquel
            Latest version of Trisquel is 8.0 and it's released in 2018 with 5 years support. It supports 32-bit architecture.


            2. Uruk GNU/Linux
            Uruk is a new distro derived from Trisquel by Iraqi developers. Latest version of Uruk is 2.0 with 32-bit support.


            3. Fedora Spin MATE-Compiz
            Fedora MATE-Compiz is one among many Fedora Spins (equivalent to Ubuntu Flavors) which provides 32-bit version. Latest Fedora MATE is 29.


            4. Mint MATE
            Mint being fully desktop operating system derived from Ubuntu had already supported 32-bit since the beginning. Support lifespan information are very clear: 18 is supported until 2021 and 19 is supported until 2023.


            5. Debian Live MATE
            Debian Live MATE is also one among many Debian Live Editions (equivalent to both Ubuntu Flavors and Fedora Spins) and it supports 32-bit. Latest Debian Live version now is 9 "Stretch".


            6. Porteus MATE
            Porteus being a portable and low-end OS since long had supported 32-bit.


            7. Ubuntu MATE 18.04 LTS
            Ubuntu MATE still provides 32-bit version for 18.04 LTS (supported until 2021) and for 16.04 (supported until this year).


            (Ubuntu MATE 18.04 LTS 32-bit)
            (Ubuntu MATE 16.04.2 LTS 32-bit)
            8. Devuan (nolivecd)
            Devuan, the non-systemd derivative of Debian, supported 32-bit editions. However, its not LiveCD, but InstallCD only.


            9. Robolinux MATE
            Robo, an Ubuntu and Debian-based distro from Cambodia, provides 32-bit Live MATE editions of its version 8. Please note that Robo 8 is based on Debian 8.


            10. Sparky MATE
            Sparky, Debian-based distro, provides MATE LiveCD 32-bit on its download server. However, I cannot find any information about this particular edition on its official website and its wiki.


            11. Mageia 6 (nolivecd)
            Mageia 6, an active Mandriva derivative, provides InstallCD version with MATE Desktop included in the 32-bit ISO along with other Desktops.


            12. Void Live MATE
            Void, an independent GNU/Linux distro built from scratch, has a Live MATE edition among its many other ones. Void is a rolling-release distro, non-systemd, with own XBPS package manager, and uses LibreSSL instead of OpenSSL. It's developed by a former NetBSD developer.


            13. IGOS Nusantara MATE
            IGOS, a Fedora-based GNU/Linux distro developed by Indonesian Instutute of Science, still provide 32-bit of version 12. Just choose the "live32" version on the download page.


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            More in Tux Machines

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