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Updated: 2 hours 59 min ago

Step By Step To Upgrade Ubuntu from 18.04 to 19.04 using Command Lines

6 hours 41 min ago
(Ubuntu 19.04 after upgrade from 18.04 LTS)
This is tutorial to upgrade your Ubuntu from 18.04 LTS to 19.04 using 'do-release-upgrade' command lines. The upgrade process is divided to two steps, first to upgrade to 18.10, and second to upgrade to 19.04. In other words, we will upgrade from Bionic Beaver to Cosmic Cuttlefish to Disco Dingo. The whole process takes approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes on broadband internet connection and Solid State Disk (SSD) storage. Go ahead and have a safe upgrade. Finally, happy working!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
More about Ubuntu 19.04: Download Links | Install Guide | Bootable-Making Guide | Upgrade 14.04 to 16.04 | Upgrade 16.04 to 18.04 | WTDAI | GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Extensions | Dash to Panel | Dash to Dock | Tray Icons

  • Ubuntu 18.04 installed on your computer.
  • At least 5GB free space.
  • Stable internet access. Preferable the fast one.
  • To be present in front of computer display during upgrade.

  • This tutorial is best for experimental installed Ubuntu system and I recommend you not to upgrade your daily for-work desktop system unless you know what you are doing and you accept everything may happen to your system.
  • Upgrading 18.04 to 19.04 means upgrading an LTS to a nonLTS Ubuntu version. LTS is supported for 5 years while nonLTS is supported for 9 month.
  • Upgrading is not straight, but it's twice, as you need first to upgrade to 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish and finally to 19.04 Disco Dingo. 
  • Upgrading costs a lot of internet bandwidth. Make sure you have at least --for safety-- 5GB data or more to upgrade. 

  • 1. Check your disk space
  • 2. Disable third party repositories
  • 3. Full update "bionic"
  • 4. Upgrade to "cosmic"
  • 5. First result
  • 6. Upgrade to "disco"
  • 7. Final result

    1. Check your disk space
    Use command line below to know your free space ("Avail"). For example, I have at least 14GB free disk space for my root partition and that is safe.

    $ df -h /
    (Before upgrade)
    After upgrade, free space becomes 12G, as I upgraded from a freshly installed 18.04. It means for a pure system, the whole upgrade needs at least 2GB free space. To be safe, I recommend you to prepare at least 5GB free space for the downloaded packages and package installation.
    $ df -h /
    (After upgrade)

    2. Disable Third Party Repositories
    If you had ever installed PPA repositories, for example, you need to disable them first in order to upgrade your system safely. Run 'Software & Updates' from menu or press Alt_F2 and run software-properties-gtk to see repository settings. Third-party repositories (if any) are configurable in the second tab Other Software. Disable them all.

    (Third-party repositories settings)
      3. Full Update 18.04 "Bionic"
      Before changing the OS version to the newest one, we need to make sure current OS version has the latest software packages. These processes are taking a long time e.g. more than 1 hours if you have many apps installed so you need to stand by in front of your screen to respond to any question may occur.
      $ sudo apt-get  update
      $ sudo apt-get upgrade
      $ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

      ((1) apt-get update with fastest repository mirror in my country (2) apt-get upgrade indicates I would download 400MB packages (3) selection of configuration: press arrow up/down to select and press TAB to highlight OK button and press Enter to accept it (4) apt-get dist-upgrade indicates I would download 100MB packages)
      4. Upgrade to 18.10 "Cosmic"
      First release upgrade, do the command line do-release-upgrade to automatically change your OS version 18.04 to latest OS version available 19.04. This process takes the most time in my practice by downloading 800MB data in approximately 2 hours. Your practice may be different so be prepared.
      $ sudo do-release-upgrade

      ((1) software-properties-gtk set to For any new version (2) authenticate to change of software-properties-gtk settings (3) do-release-upgrade starts and finds newer version of Ubuntu "cosmic" (4) do-release-upgrade changes the previous bionic to cosmic (5) do-release-upgrade informs it needs to download 800MB to upgrade OS version to cosmic (6) questions: answer everything with Y (7) do-release-upgrade asks your permission to remove some packages: answer with Y (8) all upgrade finished and you need to restart: answer with Y)
      5. First Result
      After first restart, you will see Ubuntu turned 18.10. Continue to the next step.

      (Cosmic Cuttlefish)
      6. Upgrade to 19.04 "Disco"
      This is the second OS upgrade, do the command line do-release-upgrade to upgrade from 18.10 to 19.04.

      $ sudo do-release-upgrade

      ((1) do-release-upgrade finds new OS release "dingo" (2) do-release-upgrade informs that it needs to download 800MB packages (3) downloading all packages (4) configuration: select using up/down arrow key and press TAB to highlight OK button and press Enter to accept it (5) do-release-upgrade asks you to remove certain packages: answer with Y (6) do release-upgrade asks you to restart: answer with Y)
      7. Final Result
      Successful upgrade should indicate your OS version to be Ubuntu 19.04 and your wallpaper changed from Bionic Beaver to Disco Dingo. See picture below. Congratulations!

      (Disco Dingo)
      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      Download Links of Ubuntu 19.04 and Official Flavors (with Direct Links, Torrents, and Checksums)

      Sunday 21st of April 2019 03:12:00 PM

      Ubuntu 19.04 released Thursday, 18 April 2019 along with 7 Official Flavors. This page lists all download links of ISO images both direct links & torrents with MD5SUMS. Among these links, I highly recommends you to download via torrents instead as it's faster, more reliable, and in same time it benefits the whole community. Happy downloading, happy working!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
      Read also: Install Guide | Making Bootable Guide





      Ubuntu MATE

      Ubuntu Budgie

      Ubuntu Studio

      Ubuntu Kylin

      Check MD5SUM value of every ISO image you downloaded and then compare the value with these MD5SUM values. Simply use Ctrl+F on your web browser to find.

      6fa9686bc299c19c97d280f79a723868 *ubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      9a5cdb753ab86cd98ff426347faf9989 *kubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      0ce7ed9f0664be5df686f8a85d054915 *xubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      93887c92a5e41f8ab339967db085553c *lubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      Ubuntu MATE:
      e7f0f99a35a9fcaeceb7a7c36a53b450 *ubuntu-mate-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      Ubuntu Budgie:
      e7f0f99a35a9fcaeceb7a7c36a53b450 *ubuntu-mate-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      96b94c64e9c5378ee353b8a4ce6dde4c *ubuntustudio-19.04-dvd-amd64.iso

      Ubuntu Kylin:
      8fab32ed8bae66bb280d843d4d51f083 *ubuntukylin-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      What To Do After Installing Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo"

      Saturday 20th of April 2019 07:49:00 AM

       (Ubuntu 19.04 running Inkscape and System Info)
      This is the traditional recommendation to do and and tips & tricks for users who just installed Ubuntu 19.04. This recommendation I tried to limit the stuffs to built-in applications only, with less customization, such as, making presentation with LibreOffice Impress using Ubuntu artworks, subscribing to Ubuntu & GNU/Linux podcasts such as MintCast & Ubuntu Podcast in Rhythmbox, saving online accounts credentials using GNOME Seahorse (similar to KeePass), along with the usual Firefox addons and changing Nautilus default view & making desktop shortcuts for apps. Of course, you will Finally, I hope you enjoy 19.04 with this article. Happy working!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.Read more about Ubuntu 19.04: Installation Guide | The GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Customization | Useful Extensions | Tray Icons

      • 1. About Repository
      • 2. About File Manager
      • 3. About Podcast & Audio Player
      • 4. About LibreOffice Impress
      • 5. About Web Browser and Addons
      • 6. About Password Manager
      • 7. About System Settings
      • 8. About Email Client
      • 9. About Online Accounts (Google Drive sync on File Manager)
      • 10. About Traditional Desktop

      1. Switch Repository Mirror, Install and Upgrade Applications
      For example, in Indonesia, personally I find that either Kartolo by Datautama company or Kambing by Indonesia University is the most reliable, fastest mirror. For you country where you live, you can either use Select Best Server button or find by yourself trying from among choices available. By default, Ubuntu chooses not either one of them, but which is considerably far slower. I changed my mirror heading to Kartolo immediately after I finished Ubuntu installation.
       (Software & Updates blue logo)
      • Click 3x3 dots menu button on bottom
      • Search Software & Updates with blue logo
      • Click the Download from button > click Others
      • Select your country > select a mirror among mirrors available there
      • Click Choose Server > click Close
      • Select Reload if asked
      • You repository mirror changed

      (Left: software-properties-gtk window showing repository sources enabled; right: list of repository mirrors selection of Indonesia)

      (Ubuntu Software orange logo)
      Browsing for applications is easy thanks to Ubuntu Software (the app center) or I prefer to call it Software Center instead. The Software Center presents you applications from the official Ubuntu repository as well as applications from (in other words, gives you both DEB and Snaps). However, it mixes together between free and proprietary software there. To know whether a program is free, click the application, click License section, you will see it's described as Free (mostly with permission called "GPL"), otherwise it's described as Proprietary.

      (Ubuntu Software Center with Krita professional drawing & animation program as featured application)
      To install application:
      • Click software name
      • Click Install button
      • Wait the process (this depends on the program size and your net speed)
      • Application installed
      • Find the application in the start menu

      To remove application:
      • Same as above, but click Remove button instead

      To upgrade application:
      • Go to Updates tab
      • Press Reload button on top-left corner
      • Wait the process
      • You will see list of applications available to be upgraded
      • Click Update button on application
      • Application updated
      • Run the application and go to (mostly) menu bar Help > About to see the version number

      2. Nautilus
      If you come to 19.04 straight from 16.04, you will find Nautilus changed a lot. It's far more simpler with many options removed from the screen. But your settings are still familiar, for example, show List View everywhere and show file size on Thumbnails View.

      (Nautilus File Manager icon)
      (Left: file manager with normal (thumbnails) view; right: file manager with detailed (list) view)

      To put applications on desktop, you cannot drag and drop icons from menu straight to desktop area. Instead, you copy applications from /usr/share/applications/ to ~/Desktop directory. Next step, right-click every application on desktop > Allow Launching. Finally, you can run every one of them.
      (How to copy manually every app to ~/Desktop and make them executable on desktop area)
      3. Rhythmbox
      Starting the new Ubuntu 19.04 with community podcasts is a good thing! Podcast is, simply, internet radio broadcasting you can download as MP3 or OGG audio file, which regularly published weekly or monthly, by individuals among our community. In our Ubuntu and Free/Libre Open Source Software community, podcasts talk about daily life using Ubuntu itself, gaming, hardware tweaking, security, and some about internal development of various GNU/Linux distros. You can play podcast using Rhythmbox.

      (Rhythmbox aka GNOME Music logo)
      You can start downloading podcasts from these podcast sources:

      (Rhythmbox playing a podcast from Linux Unplugged #266, Rhythmbox playing a podcast from Choose Linux Show #5)
      If you love to subscribe instead, in Rhythmbox you can even automatically get latest podcast as long as your internet access is on. Please remember that this requires more bandwidth than you download podcast audio file one by one. To do so, for example with two RSS feed URLs from Ubuntu Podcast and Linux Unplugged:
      • Click Podcast section on the left panel under Library
      • Right-click on the Feed panel > New Podcast Feed
      • Rhythmbox will download list of podcasts available
      • Click Subscribe button
      • All podcasts from this source subscribed
      • Repeat those processes for another podcast source

      (See "Podcast" section on left? See Subscribe button on center? See list of podcasts on bottom? It's Rhythmbox subscribing to Linux Unplugged podcast RSS feed)

      4. LibreOffice Impress Presentation
      You can create amazing presentation in Impress using artworks you can download from Ubuntu. You can find many logos, including Ubuntu logo itself, along with the iconic dialog balloon you saw on installation progress.

      (Impress logo)
      Here's where to download artworks:

      (Quote Pictogram artwork is located at bottom-right of the page)
      For example, let's make slide decoration:
      • Download the Quote Pictogram from
      • You got quote-pictogram.svg file. 
      • Drag and drop the SVG file into Impress.
      • Right-click the balloon > Crop > cut it off to fit its left edge with left edge of the slide. 

      ((1) insert the picture (2) select > right-click > Crop (3) move the handle a little bit to right and press Enter (4) picture cropped properly)
      Some slides as example:

      (Creative Impress presentation slide using artwork from Ubuntu Official)
      (Second slide, with other artwork, but same cropping technique)
      5. Firefox
      Ubuntu comes with Mozilla Firefox web browser. It has automatic updates feature for its search engine, addons, and the Firefox itself. If you prefer to update everything manually, like me for example, turn them off below. And, below you will find addons recommendation you can use.

      (Ctrl+Shift+A on Firefox brings the addons management page)

      Addons you can find helpful:

      This way, you can install Desktop Extensions you love from GNOME website. There are a lot of extensions to boost up your productivity and comfortability using Ubuntu 19.04, such as, Drop Down Terminal. See extension recommendation article for more.

      (E.G.O. website showing a lot of extensions)
      6. Password Keeper
      Yes, Ubuntu 19.04 comes with a secure password keeper program. You can use it to save your online accounts (usernames & passwords) so you can open them at any time. It's Passwords & Keys on start menu and originally named GNOME Seahorse.

       (GNOME Seahorse logo)
      To save an email account:
      • Click the + button on the title bar > Select Password
      • Select keyring Login
      • On Description, type your email address
      • On Password, type the password
      • OK
      • Your account saved under Login keyring among other accounts
      • Click the black lock logo beside Login keyring > type your Ubuntu password > OK
      • Now all your saved passwords are safe

       (Personal accounts credentials saved on GNOME Seahorse)
      (Seahorse itself can be locked, just like any other password manager program)
      To open your saved password:
      • Click the black lock logo > type your Ubuntu password > OK
      • Double click your email address
      • Your account password shown in dots with Copy button beside. 
      • Click the key button to show/hide the password.

      (Opening an entry to see username and password we had saved)
      7. System Settings
      • Night Light
      • Tap to click
      • Natural scrolling
      • Privacy
      • Language
      • Keyboard
      • Volume more than 100% 

      (System Settings logo)
      Night light: set it to Sunset to Sunrise to make it automatically adapts screen color warmth. As many of you know, for users with long duration in front of screen, this helps reduce eye strain and sleeplessness.

      (But, if you choose manual, you can instead move the slider to set permanent color temperature)
      Touchpad settings: for laptop users, enable Touchpad, Tap To Click, and Two-finger Scrolling options, and disable Natural Scrolling.

      (Disabling Natural Scrolling is needed for laptop which does not have touch screen display)
      Privacy settings: there are six aspects of personal info transmission:
      • 1) Screen Lock: you can choose the delay time to lock from 30 seconds to 1 hours. 
      • 2) Location Services: it's actually Mozilla Location Service, if enabled, you allow applications (and highly probable, their developers) to know your location. Privacy wise, it's better to disable this.
      • 3) Usage & History: recent files can be disabled by disabling this. You can also delete them by pressing Delete button there.
      • 4) Purge Trash & Temp. Files: you may choose to automatically delete everything on trash bin and temporary. 
      • 5) Problem Reporting: enable this and you can report problems and bugs on your system easily and automatically to Ubuntu Developers. Disable this if you do not want to see Apport Error Notification bugs you anymore.
      • 6) Connectivity Checking: do you often go to public wifi hotspot? If this enabled, Ubuntu will show the login page of the hotspot (Captive Portal)

      (Privacy settings)
      (Full view of Privacy settings)
      Region & Language settings:

      • 1) Language: this changes the language of all applications user interface.
      • 2) Formats: this changes date/time, numbers (100.000,00 / 1,000,000.00), measurement (Metric / Imperial), and paper size (A4 / Letter). 
      • 3) Input source options: you can choose whether to apply one keyboard layout to all applications, or to make some exceptions.
      • 4) Keyboard layout: add new keyboard layout (like Russian, Japanese, Arabic, etc.) and switch the order among them. Adding new layout shows them on top bar of your desktop. 
      • 5) Install more languages: shows Language Support dialog to search and download more user interface languages.

      (Adding keyboard layouts and choosing among them)
      Volume settings: Ubuntu 19.04 can amplify volume beyond 100%. This helps for listening by speaker when raining, or, when you are in a noisy public place.
      (Adjusting volume up to 150%)

      8. Thunderbird & Gmail Account
      In brief, here's how to assign a Gmail account, username and password, into Thunderbird Mail Client. Thunderbird on Ubuntu is replacement to Outlook on Windows. Longer explanation with screenshots I've explained on Gmail IMAP on Thunderbird. (See also here to setup it as Google Calendar client and as RSS feed reader.)
      • Set Gmail Web to accept IMAP client
      • Run Thunderbird
      • Create new account
      • Type your Gmail address and password
      • Let Thunderbird scans everything for you
      • Make sure you see IMAP (remote folder) option selected
      • Go ahead

      (Quick setup Gmail account in Mozilla Thunderbird)
      9. Online Accounts
      For example, you want to connect to Google Drive using file manager, and take back your personal data to keep them in your local custody. Go to System Settings > Online Accounts > Google > type your username > type your password > type verification if asked > OK > make sure Files option is enabled there. Once enabled, go to File Manager, you will see your email address there. Click it to access your Google Drive.

      (System Settings logo)
      System Settings showing Files section ON aka synchronized to Google Drive.

      (System Settings in Google Account options)
      Accessing Google Drive using file manager:

      (After setup, you will see your files in Nautilus File Manager)
      10. Make it traditional once again
      Previous tutorial explained how to make this GNOME desktop look more desktop-oriented rather than smartphone-oriented. For this purpose, you will need GNOME Tweak Tool installed and GNOME Integration enabled. The extension, Dash To Panel, will automatically turn left panel to bottom taskbar including system tray. If you prefer KDE Plasma or Windows 7 style of panel positioning, you will like this customization. Enjoy!

      (Ubuntu 19.04 with traditional desktop)
      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      How To Install Ubuntu 19.04 with Instructions for External Disk Drive and UEFI

      Wednesday 17th of April 2019 04:47:00 AM
       (Ubuntu 19.04 installation to computer with a beautiful welcome message)
      This tutorial explains how to install Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo" with or without UEFI and in internal or external hard disk drive. You even can practice this to install Ubuntu on USB Flash Drive. You will prepare 2 partitions, 1 USB Flash Drive as installation media, and 1 EFI partition (for computer with UEFI boot system). The installation is quick with only +/-15 minutes into flash drive and should be quicker on HDD and even more quicker on SSD. I wish you all success in your installation. Finally, good luck and happy working!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
      Related to Ubuntu 19.04: Pre-release Review | Dash to Panel extension | Tray Icons extension | Useful Extensions | WTDAI for GNOME Desktop | GNOME 3.32 on Dingo Beta | Ubuntu's Yaru | Mojave Custom | GNOME Extensions Install and Remove

      • Preparations
      • Step 1: Choose Language
      • Step 2: Choose Keyboard
      • Step 3: Choose Network
      • Step 4: Choose Mode
      • Step 5: Partitioner
      • Step 6: Create Main Partition
      • Step 7: Create Swap
      • Special: Create EFI System Partition
      • Step 8: Bootloader
      • Step 9: Personal Info
      • Step 10: Waiting
      • Final Result

      There are 3 requirements:
      • 2 partitions in hard disk drive
      • 1 USB Flash Drive (as Ubuntu bootable media)
      • 1 EFI partition (for UEFI computer)

      First, what you required to create are 2 important disk partitions:
      • One blank partition at least 20GB for main partition
      • One blank partition at least 1GB for swap partition
      Second, if your computer booting system is UEFI, not BIOS (Legacy), you need to create 1 more disk partition:
      • One blank partition of 500MB for EFI System Partition (ESP)
      Third, write the ISO image file of Ubuntu 19.04 into a USB Flash Disk using program Unetbootin (Windows), or GNOME Disk Utility (GNU/Linux), or Apple Disk Utility (MacOS).

      To be completely careful, please pay attention to these:
      1. This tutorial is best for empty computer i.e. newly purchased computer or second hand without any data or any operating system inside.
      2. This tutorial can be used for dualboot installation mode e.g. having Windows and Ubuntu in one computer. 
      3. This tutorial can be applied normally to install Ubuntu into internal hard disk.
      4. On the other hand, this tutorial can be applied as well to install Ubuntu into external hard disk drive or USB flash drive.
      5. You are responsible to your own computer and your own data. Make backup of all your important data present in the internal disk drive before doing any of these. Do not apply this to a non-empty computer e.g. dualboot mode unless you are experienced and you know what you are doing.
      6. If you are not experienced, ask technician or similar people with knowledge you trust near you to guide you in front of your computer to do these preparations and instructions below. Let him/her read the instructions and help you practicing.

      Enter LiveCD
      Plug your bootable drive into USB port. Boot your computer with USB as booting choice. You should see Ubuntu screen soon with 2 choices. Click Try Ubuntu instead of Install Ubuntu.

      Start the Installer
      After that, you see a complete Ubuntu desktop ready on your screen. Double-click the Install Ubuntu icon on desktop. This starts Ubuntu System Installer.

      1. Choose a language
      Select English and continue.

      2. Choose Keyboard
      Let the default choice (English (US) - English (US)) selected unless you prefer another layout such as Russian or Japanese.

      3. Choose No Network
      Select I don't want to connect [...] instead. This way installation will finish faster.

      4. Choose Normal Installation
      Let the default choice, Normal Installation, selected. This will install everything Ubuntu comes with.

      5. Choose Something Else
      Select Something Else. This will bring you partition editor.

      6. Create Main Partition
      For installation to hard disk drive or external hard disk drive, do these:
      • 1) Select your first blank partition > click Change
      • 2) make sure the size is 20000 MB or more 
      • 3) Use as: Ext4 journaling file system 
      • 4) Format the partition: Yes 
      • 5) Mount point: / 
      • OK

      If you want to install Ubuntu into USB Flash Drive, I suggest you to use Ext2 instead of Ext4 as Ext2 write rate is lower.

      (Example setup for installation into a 16GB USB Flash Drive)
      7. Create Swap Partition
      • 1) Select your second empty partition > click Change
      • 2) Make sure the size is 1000 MB at least
      • 3) Format the partition: Yes
      • 4) Use as: swap area

      [Special: Create EFI Partition]
      Only if your computer booting system is UEFI (new generation BIOS), follow this. If your computer still uses BIOS (Legacy) or has UEFI disabled, skip this right to step 8.

      • Select your third blank partition of 500MB > click Change.
      • Select Use as: EFI System Partition.
      • Select Format the partition: Yes
      • OK

      8. Assign Bootloader
      Choose the hard disk location where your main partition located. For hard disk drive, for example, where your main partition is /dev/sda1, then the bootloader should be assigned to /dev/sda.

      • If you install Ubuntu to external hard drive, assume the partition is /dev/sdb1, then the bootloader should be in /dev/sdb
      • If you install Ubuntu to USB Flash Drive, assume the partition is /dev/sdc1, then the bootloader should be in /dev/sdc.

      Screenshot below depicts installation into USB flash drive /dev/sdc with partition /dev/sdc1 as main partition so the disk /dev/sdc is the bootloader location.

      9. Personal Info
      There are 2 info you need to determine here:

      a) Your geographical location:
      Choose your country or country region. This determines your time, currency, number format (period or comma), and so on.

      b) Your username and password:
      Determine your own username and password. The password here will be your sudo password as well.

      10. Processing the Installation
      What you need to do is to wait all remaining process to be done. In a laptop with Intel Pentium 4GB 16GB Flash Drive, this takes up to 14 minutes at most.

      Final Result
      Once finished, the system installer shows Installation Complete dialog. Click Restart Now, unplug your USB installation media, and let your computer boots to Ubuntu 19.04. Congratulations! Happy working!

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      The Beauty of Dash to Dock Extension on GNOME 3.32

      Friday 12th of April 2019 03:47:00 PM
       (GNOME with vertical panel on right side and in red color)
      You may find many articles on the net guiding you to install Dash To Dock extension on GNOME. But there are very few ones to speak more about experimenting with it. This article explores the features of this one Extension to show you possibilities it can give to your GNOME 3 desktop environment. You can enable click to raise/minimize window, change the icon size, color the dock or make it transparent, make the dock to mimic Unity Launcher, reposition it to any edge of your screen, etc. You will find my experiments below, like, make everything looks larger to help friends with vision impairments, using GNOME 3.32 desktop on GNU/Linux. Finally, happy tweaking!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
      Read more about GNOME 3.32: Dash to Panel | Tray Icons | Useful Extensions | WTDAI | 3.32 on Dingo Beta| Ubuntu's Yaru | Distros Availability | Mojave Custom | Extensions Install and Remove

      Where is it?
      Distro coming with Dash to Dock preinstalled is Ubuntu up to this moment. But other distros using GNOME still can install it by going to E.G.O. website. The version I use in this tutorial is 66.

      Once installed, in the Tweak Tool, you will find it under Extensions section. This Extension is one among few which has Settings available.Click the Gear ('*') button to show its settings dialog.

      Once you have it, you can follow my exploration below. I will fill Part 1 to 5 with the 5 pages of Dash to Dock (DTD from now on) settings dialog.

      Part I: Position and Size
      The first part of DTD settings gives you control over everything about panel position and size. You enable autohide here, make it full size, and enlarge the icons. If you wonder what kind of setting latest Ubuntu interface has, it's actually Panel mode here enabled.

      • Show the dock on: Primary Monitor|Other Monitor
      • Position on screen: Left|Bottom|Top|Right 
      • Intelligen autohide(*): ON|OFF
      • Dock size limit: 0%-100%
      • Panel mode: YES|NO
      • Icon size limit: 16|24|32|48|64|96|128
      • Fixed icon size: scroll to reveal other icons: YES|NO

      On Dock size limit measure, it's enabled by default if you don't enable Panel mode option, number you set there will be the length of the dock. If the number of apps running is more than dock length, you will need to scroll down to reveal other apps.

      On Fixed icon size option, if enabled, panel size will adapt to number of apps running to avoid scrolling. It's not comfortable if you use the dock as panel as your maximized window will also adapt its size to dock size.

      (*) Intellihide:

      • Autohide: ON|OFF
      • Enable in fullscreen mode: YES|NO
      • Push to show: YES|NO
      • Dodge windows: ON|OFF
      • All windows, Only focused, only maximized: Select one
      • Animation duration (s): 0.2
      • Hide timeout (s): 0.2
      • Show timeout (s): 0.25
      • Pressure treshold: 100

      Animation duration option may make animation smoother if you give it a higher number (max 1.0 s). Pressure threshold may help you if you wish hidden panel harder to show, 300 or 350 is a good number.

      Part II: Launchers
      The second part gives you control over the taskbar or list of apps running + pinned ones there. Notable option is Move the applications button... where if enabled it moves the start menu button from bottom to top of vertical panel. It's the actual setting of latest Ubuntu interface.


      • Show favorite applications: ON|OFF
      • Show running applications: ON|OFF
      • Show open windows previews: YES|NO
      • Isolate workspaces: YES|NO
      • Isolate monitors: YES|NO
      • Show Applications icon: ON|OFF
      • Move the applications button at the beginning of the dock: YES|NO
      • Animate show applications: YES|NO

      Show open windows previews option will give you tooltip preview from right-click of an app on the dock. Disable it then no preview will show.

      Isolate workspaces and monitors option will distinguish taskbar for different workspaces and different monitors. For example, if you run Firefox on workspace 1, then you move to workspace 2, taskbar will not indicate Firefox running on workspace 2. If you click the icon on workspace 2, it will run new window instead, not bring you to workspace 1.

      Animate show applications option may help (a lot) reduce your computer resource if disabled. It may speed up your job as you need no animation anymore.

      Part III: Behavior
      Third part gives you control about click behavior of apps running on the dock. For those who consider clicking an app to show/hide the app window is the right thing, this is what they need. You want click to minimize, right? Then simply choose Click action: Minimize here.

      • Use keyboard shortcuts to activate app:(*) ON|OFF
      • Click action(*): Raise window|Minimize|Launch new instance|Cycle through windows|Minimize or overview|Show window previews|Minimize or show previews|Focus or show previews
      • Scroll action: Do nothing|Cycle through windows|Switch workspace 

      First option here turns normal vertical dock to Unity Launcher panel. When you hold Super key and press 1, first icon on the dock will run, just like we experienced on Ubuntu 16.04. The only difference at the moment is that it does not show the numbers immediately, we need to add number key (run an app) first to show every app its number.

        (*) Use keyboard:

        • Reset to defaults
        • Number overlay: ON|OFF
        • Show the dock if it is hidden: ON|OFF
        • Shortcut for the options above: <Shift>|<Super>|<Ctrl>|<Alt>
        • Hide timeout (s): 0.0-10.0

        This settings dialog clearly wants to help you disable the number instead if you only want the shortcut key functionality. You can also switch the key from Super to Alt for example. This is another difference as we cannot change the Super key on Unity.

          (*) Click action

          • Shift+Click action: Raise|Minimize|Launch new|Cycle through|Minimize or overview|Preview|Minimize or preview|Focus of Preview|Quit
          • Middle-Click action: idem
          • Shift+Middle-Click action: idem

          This settings dialog gives you more control of click behaviors. It differs between Shift+Click, Middle click, and Shift+Middle click, with a lot of choices each. For users with a lot of activities involving windows, this may help, for example Click to minimize and Shift+Click to quit. They may work quicker that way.

          Part IV: Appearance
          Fourth part, the last part, gives you control over appearance of the dock including the theme choice, color, and opacity. And this part is the one to help you mimic Unity panel completely on GNOME. Just see the third option below.

          • Use built-in theme: ON|OFF
          • Shrink the dash: ON|OFF
          • Customize windows counter indicators(*): Default|Dots|Squares|Dashes|Segmented|Solid|Ciliora|Metro
          • Customize the dash color: ON|OFF
          • Customize opacity(*): Default|Fixed|Dynamic
          • Opacity: 0%-100%
          • Force straight corner: ON|OFF

          I don't know if it's a bug or not, but I cannot make the (*) working from Customize opacity option.

            (*) Customize windows counter indicators

            • Enable Unity7 like glossy backlit items: ON|OFF
            • Use dominant color: ON|OFF
            • Customize indicator style: ON|OFF
            • Color: <color_selector>
            • Border color: <color_selector>
            • Border width: 0-10

            This settings dialog helps you to turn GNOME panel to Unity panel. You may see Part VIII below for screenshots and more details.

            Part V: About
            Fifth part of the DTD settings is information about the software itself. It's created by Michele from (see the website, it's simply cool). Finally it says it licensed under GNU GPLv2+ free software license. DTD may be only an extension, but this About page is professional in my personal opinion and I like it. Really good job, Michele, and big thanks to you!

            Part VI: With and Without DTD
            It's time to see the screenshots. Here's the comparison between GNOME vanilla without DTD and with DTD enabled.

            • 1) Without DTD: no left panel showing, even when a window running
            • 2) Without DTD: only if you show overview (pushing cursor to top-left corner), left panel will show
            • 3) With DTD: left panel always showing
            • 4) With DTD: left panel appears even though a window is maximized

            These are just the basics. You still have plenty of options.

            Part VII: Left Panel Appearance
            Then, here are comparisons among panel size, panel position, and 'start menu' button location.

            • We have choices between 16px (smallest) and 128px (largest) icon size, as icon size determines panel size.

            • We can place the panel on any of left-right-top-bottom. Everything looks okay except the top one, as it covers your top panel and system tray this way.

            (Full length panel on (1) left (2) right (3) bottom (4) top)
            • By default it's not in full length, as the dock you see on macOS. But you can make it full just like Ubuntu 17.04-19.04 interface

            ((1) dock size, bottom button (2) dock size, top button (3) full size, top button (4) full size, bottom button)
            By disabling Autohide, the dock (or panel if you turned it on) will not obstruct maximized window. It will be just like any normal panel on other user interfaces (e.g. KDE).
            Part VIII: Experimenting
            Finally, it's time to experiment. I present you 4 things here:
            • Make it mimics Unity Launcher
            • Color it your color
            • Show numbers and run an app by Super+Number
            • Let's help people with vision problems

            1) Unity comes to GNOME

            By enabling Unity7... option from Appearance (see Part IV above) left panel and every app launcher there look transparent and glossy. At a glance, casual user won't see any difference to Unity desktop this way. The only one missing here is the unique Unity Dash button with Ubuntu logo on its center. I hope next time DTD will come with such option.

            2) Colors

            By changing Customize the dash color option (see Part IV above), we can change the dock background color. By default you will see Color Palette to choose a color from. Here's my example of green, yellow, and red panels.

            (Color palette dialog with nice color choices)

            3) Launcher numbers

            On Unity desktop, when you hold Super key, you will see every icon on panel got a number, and pressing Super+1 runs the first icon and Super+9 runs the ninth icon. That's the innovation of Unity. DTD can do that for you, simply go to Behavior and enable Use keyboard shortcuts... option (see Part III above). You may have experiment between the transparent one and the colored one like below. 

            4) To help disabled friends

            To help people with vision difficulties, we can enlarge both left panel's icons and text on screen. Coloring the panel is also a good idea if a certain color helps them. To enlarge panel icons, simply slide Icon size limit option to the large one. To enlarge text, simply go to System Settings > Universal Access > Large Text: ON. Screenshot below is the same GNOME with full resolution with enlarged panel icons and text. You may notice the distance between clock and system tray reduced because of it.

            (More visible text of folders and top panel, more visible icons on the dock)
            Closing words
            Dash To Dock is a really good extension. It proves that althogh GNOME 3 is by default less configurable*, but by using right extension you can make it more configurable and usable once again. You can enable normal behaviors of normal desktop once again, for instance, click app icon to raise or minimize it, or another instance, show the taskbar every time. You can also have unique and innovative features, such as Unity7 Launcher above and the ability to open app by Super+<number> key combo. Furthermore, you can have a little nostalgia in coloring the panel as you might did on GNOME 2 era prior to 2011. Finally, I wish you enjoy this article. Happy tweaking!

            *) for instance, you have no right-click > Configure both on the top panel and the dock, and you can not add more panel.

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            GNOME 3.32 + Bottom Taskbar + Traditional Layout

            Friday 5th of April 2019 01:27:00 PM
            (GNOME 3.32 with traditional desktop settings on GNU/Linux)
            Following latest customization tutorial, and inspired by Alex's post on /r/GNOME/, here's GNOME desktop with traditional layout tweak. Traditional means it looks like KDE, Windows, or Mint with bottom-oriented taskbar and start menu. You will have no top panel nor left panel anymore, with panel on bottom along with its system tray. The star of this tutorial is the extension named Dash to Panel (not to be confused with Dash to Dock), an amazing tool to flexibly tweak and control everything of our beloved panel. Okay, here we go!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            Read more about GNOME 3.32: Tray Icons | Useful Extensions | WTDAI | 3.32 on Dingo Beta| Ubuntu's Yaru | Distros Availability | Mojave Custom | Extensions Install and Remove

            Here's what you will have after practicing the instructions:

            1) Left start menu goes back to traditional cascading bottom-up menu:

            (Start menu, clickable on bottom-left of screen many have accustomed to)
            2) System tray goes back to bottom-right:

            (System tray, now on bottom-right of screen)
            3) Tooltip of every running app:

            (Window preview on Nautilus with close button on its top-right corner)
            4) And if you wish, you can also put GNOME's 3x3 dots button right beside start menu. Your whole start menu will look like below:

            (Only bottom panel and notice there is no left dock anymore)
            1. Controls
            Enable trio buttons in Tweak Tool > Window Title bar > enable Maximize > enable Minimize.

            (Close-Maximize-Minimize controls completely shown on each title bar)
            2. Dash to Panel
            Not to be confused with Dash to Dock, the Extension used here is Dash to Panel. It gives you so many choices, but, we will only use few here:
            • - Panel screen position: Bottom
            • - Taskbar position: Left, with floating center plugin icon
            • - Display panel on all monitor: Yes
            • - Panel size: 32
            • - Override panel background opacity: Yes
            • - Override panel theme gradiend: Yes
            • - Show favorite applications: No
            • - Show applications icon: No (mentioned above, if you wish you can turn it Yes)
            • - Isolate workspace: Yes
            • - Click action: Toggle Window

            (Taskbar panel after enabling Dash to Panel)
            3. Everything tray icon
            Like previous tutorial, add TopIcons Plus and Ubuntu AppIndicator so you have running Telegram Desktop and such apps show their tray icons. Precisely, it's located before the native tray and clock.

            (Transmission BitTorrent, Wire Messenger, Pidgin Messenger, Telegram Desktop, and StarDict Dictionary staying on the panel as tray icons)

            4. Auto-hide taskbar? That's easy!
            Go to Tweak Tool > Extensions > Dash to panel > Intellihide: On > now your taskbar will hide every time a window being maximized. And yes, this is also helpful to play Swell Foop game in full screen on 1366x768 resolution. 

            (Intellihide enabled in the Tweak Tool)

            (Playing large board of Swell Foop game)
            Additional Things

            Do you need disk drive access on the tray? If so, use Removable Drive Menu.  Once a USB storage attached on a USB port, it will detect it for you.

            AlternateTab extension is not here anymore in 3.32 and later. Did you miss it? Default Alt+Tab switcher on GNOME is grouped and not separated, unlike what Alt+Tab we expect to work. Fortunately, this behavior is actually configurable internally in 3.32 (thanks to Florian Mueller's post). Go to System Settings > Devices > Keyboard > search switch windows > give it Alt+Tab shortcut > accept any confirmation > OK. Now your Alt+Tab switcher should be normal (ungrouped) once again. 

            Do you like workspace switcher? If so, use Workspace Indicator. You will need to right-click a window title bar > Move to Workspace Down to create new workspace to be shown at the Indicator. 

            Final Result
            Just like picture in the beginning, the desktop goes traditional once again. To be honest, personally this setup looks closer to Cinnamon (from Linux Mint) than KDE (from Kubuntu). Either way, I wish this setup helps you to boost up your productivity on GNOME. Finally, enjoy your desktop and happy working!

            Applications: working with LibreOffice is now desktop-oriented once again with this traditional layout. You got your space, you got your apps lined up on bottom, you can minimize and maximize every of it by one click on taskbar.

            (Writer, Calc, Impress 6.2 running on GNOME 3.32 with a menu bar opened)
            Dark theme: applications like Photos and Calendar look very good, matched with the start menu color with this traditional layout thanks to Dash to Panel.

            (Opening the start menu while Photos opens a screenshot of GNOME itself)
            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            How To Delete Telegram Groups Permanently

            Thursday 4th of April 2019 02:09:00 PM
            Deleting a group will automatically remove all members along with all messages and the group will disappear. On Telegram Desktop, basically you just need to convert the group to Supergroup and then click Delete Group button. In order to practice this, I did delete some of my groups on Telegram 1.2.1 on my KDE neon and it worked (however, current latest version is 1.6.3). Detailed step by step instructions are available below. Happy cleaning!

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            1. Manage group
            Enter the group you want to remove > click the group menu button (the vertical triple dots) > Manage group.


            2. Group info
            From Manage group dialog showing, click Group info.

            3. Convert to supergroup
            From Edit group dialog showing, select Convert to supergroup.

            From the convert to supergroup dialog, select Convert.

            Now, the group should be converted to Supergroup.

            4. Delete group
            Go to Manage group once again > Manage group > Group Info > scroll down > select Delete group.

            5. Confirm delete
            You will be asked to be sure to delete the group. All members well be removed along with all messages. Select Delete.

            6. Group deleted
            You should see that the group is no longer there. You can repeat steps 1-5 for other groups you wish to delete.

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            How To Uninstall GNOME Shell Extensions

            Thursday 4th of April 2019 04:39:00 AM
            (Tweak Tool showing list of installed Extensions on GNOME 3.32)
            On GNOME 3.32, we cannot simply remove an Extension right from the Tweak Tool anymore. In that case, you will find some Extensions not working but you cannot uninstall them. In order to uninstall them, you can either visit E.G.O. website, or manually deleting the extensions folders. Instructions below showing both ways and you can follow either way you like. Happy tweaking!

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            Read more about GNOME: Tray Icons | Useful Extensions | WTDAI | 3.32 on Dingo Beta| Ubuntu's Yaru | Distros Availability | Mojave Custom

            The problem
            See you Tweak Tool on the Extensions section. If you find some to be ERROR, or you simply wish some to be removed, you cannot remove it. Some Extensions will eventually become ERROR when GNOME reached new version and you will need the developer to update the Extension to follow the new GNOME version.

            (For example, MMOD Panel is not working on GNOME 3.32)
            And you perhaps find GNOME Software (the app center) shows ERROR information when you click the Extension name from the Tweak Tool. You perhaps cannot remove the Extension from it as well.

            (For example, Gno-menu is not removable on the Software Center on Fedora Rawhide (30 beta) at the moment)
            So, how to uninstall a GNOME Shell Extension?
            Easiest but Long Way
            It's strange but it's the fact, you can uninstall Extensions installed on your computer using a webpage on the internet. Go to, or go to E.G.O. website and click 'Installed Extensions' link on top, you will see a list of all Extensions you have installed on your GNU/Linux system. Click the red X button to uninstall an Extension.

            (Installed Extensions page on the E.G.O. website)
            Easy enough but not fancy
            With your File Manager, go to ~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/ and carefully delete the folder of the Extension you meant to delete. For example, to remove AppIndicator Support, you delete the folder below. If you do not see ~/.local folder, press Ctrl+H to show hidden files, press Ctrl+H again to hide them. See? It's not that hard at all.

            (This is where your Extensions actually installed; they are installed as folders)
            Check it out
            Either way after you uninstalled the Extension, restart the Tweak Tool so you can be sure it is gone already. Enjoy tweaking!

             (GNOME Tweaks, after some Extensions like MMOD removed) 

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Ubuntu's Yaru Theme on Fedora

            Sunday 31st of March 2019 04:55:00 PM
            (Yaru Theme Pack installed on Fedora operating system)
            How about using Yaru Desktop & Icon Theme outside of Ubuntu? Where to download? How to set them up? That's interesting as many GNU/Linux distros come with vanilla GNOME with Adwaita Theme. You might want it as Yaru is a unique, all-in-one, modern theme pack for GNOME inspired by the so called Flat and Material styles, yet it's colorful and easy to recognize. This short tutorial will guide you to completely setup Yaru on Fedora Rawhide with GNOME 3.32. Enjoy!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            You need two additional program namely meson (build tool) and sassc (css compiler). On Fedora, you can install them easily:

            $ sudo dnf install meson sassc glib
            Download Yaru
            Simply click download link below and you will have a 18MB compressed file containing Yaru Theme Pack. However, in case the package search page got dismissed someday in the future, you can always see Yaru on GitHub.

            Extract Yaru

            Right-click > Extract Here. You will get yaru directory with this hierarchy inside:

            (See there is file along with gnome-shell/ and gtk/ directories right under yaru-theme directory)
            Compile Yaru
            Yes, Yaru is indeed a complex theme so you even need to compile it. Go inside the extracted Yaru directory where you can see file and run commands below:
            $ pwd # this should indicate the yaru directory
            $ ls # this should list a file named among others
            $ meson build # this should produce a new directory named build/
            $ cd build/ #enter build/
            $ ls # this should list a file named inside build/
            $ ninja # compile everything
            $ sudo ninja install # this should finish all installations to system directories

            Enable GTK Theme
            From the Application field on GNOME Tweak Tool, select Yaru.

            Enable Icons
            It's Yaru on GNOME Tweak Tool.

            Enable Cursor
            It's also Yaru on the Tweak Tool.

            Enable Sound
            It's called Yaru as well on the Tweak Tool.

            Enable All Controls
            Just like how this theme displayed on Ubuntu, you will like trio of control buttons appears. Go to GNOME Tweak Tool > Window Titlebars > enable Maximize and Minimize.

            Final Result
            Now your Fedora should look like below. However, if you are wondering about the clock position and speed indicator there, see my latest Extensions for 3.32. Happy tweaking!

            (General desktop look with titlebars and controls)

            (Start menu look with Yaru icon theme)
            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Useful Extensions for GNOME 3.32

            Sunday 31st of March 2019 10:04:00 AM
             (GNOME 3.32 "Taipei" desktop environment with Applications Menu on top and Dash to Dock on bottom and Desktop Icons in the middle of screen)
            Now, after you've got GNOME 3.32, its time to hunt Shell Extensions once again. Here I present you my choices of Extensions working for the 3.32 which are useful and productive. For example, you may notice that some extension such as NetSpeed didn't work yet on the 3.32, and you will find the replacement to be Simple Net Speed here. You can use Desktop Icons and Dash to Dock to have traditional working environment, use Drop Down Terminal if you often run command at any time, and a pair of Applications Menu and Places Status Indicator to make your screen behaves like GNOME2. It's still so many Extensions available out there but I hope this simplified list works for you. Enjoy GNOME 3.32!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            1. Desktop Icons & Dash to Dock
            Do you want shortcut icons (like on Windows and Android) once again? Do you want left vertical panel like on Ubuntu 18.04 onward? Use Desktop Icons and Dash to Dock.

            2. Frippery Move Clock & Simple Net Speed
            To move central clock to right, use Frippery Move Clock. Unfortunately my favorite NetSpeed is not working on GNOME 3.32 yet, but Simple Net Speed works with similar live measurement of upload & download speed.

            3. Drop Down Terminal & Clipboard Indicator
            Just like Guake, you can have such thing now on GNOME 3.32 thanks to Drop Down Terminal. You can call it by pressing Apostrophe button or scrolling down on top panel. It's a really cool extension. And you can have copied-text-storage just like KDE Plasma with Clipboard Indicator.

            4. Applications Menu & Places
            Do you want top menu like the menu on Tails GNU/Linux? Use Applications Menu. Do you want GNOME2's quick access Places menu again? Use Places Status Indicator.

            That's all. Happy working!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Bring Back Tray Icons on GNOME 3.32

            Saturday 30th of March 2019 04:26:00 PM
            (Telegram, StarDict, Shutter, Pidgin, Transmission, and Tomboy tray icons running on GNOME 3.32 "Taipei")
            Telegram Desktop, Shutter Screenshot Tool, and Tomboy Notes are examples of apps with tray icons. By default, GNOME 3.32 does not show them at its top panel system tray. This may greatly reduce your productivity. To show them once again, you can install TopIcons Plus extension and they will show. Special to Telegram, you need to install Ubuntu AppIndicator extension as well. Alternatively, if you wish you can use KStatusNotifierItem instead.

            On GNOME Tweak Tool, you can configure TopIcons Plus so the group of icons show right on left side of GNOME's system tray. The formula is Tray horizontal alignment=Right and Tray offset=4 like picture below.

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Quick Fix: Broken GNOME App's Titlebar on KDE Plasma

            Saturday 30th of March 2019 07:10:00 AM
            I don't remember why, but suddenly my GNOME programs Peek GIF Recorder and Swell Foop puzzle game run with non-visible and abnormal titlebars on my KDE Plasma Desktop 5.12.3. It seems that this way GNOME Apps cannot show its top-left-corner menu and some other fail to draw its titlebar (we perceive it transparent). At this moment, I can only say that this problem occurs only if I choose Breeze for GTK3 theme. If I choose Emacs theme, it goes back to normal. A quick fix to this problem is by going to System Settings > Application Style > Window Decoration > GNOME Application Style > Select a GTK3 Theme > choose Emacs > OK.

            (Not normal)

            (Peek gif recorder: see how transparent the border is)(How I am supposed to resize the window with this?)

            (Swell Foop (puzzle game): see the unusual title bar and top-left menu cannot be opened)

            (Peek with normal titlebar and window border)
            (Swell Foop (puzzle game): the menu can be opened again)


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE Plasma Desktop + Unity Layout + Ubuntu Ambiance Theme

            Friday 29th of March 2019 04:29:00 PM
             (KDE Plasma Desktop with Ambiance theme and Humanity icon set)
            Following my latest customization tutorial and my old 2016 one,  this short tutorial explains how to install Ambiance theme from Ubuntu so the custom Plasma can look more like Unity. After you made the top and left panel, now you will have black titlebar with orange circle close-button and make the left panel translucent and finally install the famous Humanity icon theme. I hope you enjoy this better than my old tutorial. Happy tweaking!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            See also about Plasma: KDE4 on KDE5 | Plasma ala OS X | KDE OS for Graphic Designers | Kvantum | The 5.15 Availability

            Result talks first
            Showing it with the original Ubuntu's purple-orange wallpaper will make it clearer.

            1. Switch controls to left
            Go to System Settings > Application Style > Window Decoration > drag and drop items on title bar shown there > you should have close-maximize-minimize on left side.

            (Close-Maximize-Minimize trio is now on the left)
            2. Install United theme

            3. Install Unity Ambiance theme
            Unity Ambiance:
            Install location: ~/.local/share/plasma/desktoptheme
            Settings location: System Settings > Workspace Theme > Plasma Theme > Unity Ambiance

            4. Install Window Decoration Theme
            • Blender Ambiance:
            • Install location: ~/.local/share/aurorae/themes/
            • Settings location: System Settings > Application Style > Window Decoration > Blender Ambiance.

            5. Color Scheme

            6. Icon Theme

            7. Ubuntu wallpaper
            You can download Ubuntu 16.04 wallpaper from here You better download the DEB (3MB) rather than TAR.XZ (90MB). Simply extract the DEB file until you get the warthy-final-ubuntu.png wallpaper file.

            Final Result
            Just like the first picture above, you should get this Unity-like Plasma desktop by now. Happy tweaking!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE Plasma Desktop + Vertical Panel + Global Menu

            Friday 29th of March 2019 07:57:00 AM
            (Plasma with panel layout similar to Unity Desktop Environment)
            This simple customization tutorial explains how to make Plasma to look like Unity desktop environment on GNU/Linux. You will have a working global menu on the top panel, including System Tray, and, a vertical panel with start menu where you put your favorite app shortcuts there. You will be able to save your final configuration to import it on another computer with same KDE Plasma so you do not need to re-configure it every time. I use Neon OS with Plasma 5.15 as my system to practice this tutorial and it's very easy to do. I hope you will enjoy it. Happy tweaking!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            See also about Plasma: KDE4 on KDE5 | Plasma ala OS X | KDE OS for Graphic Designers | Kvantum | The 5.15 Availability

            Result talks first
            Here's how it looks like on latest Plasma:

            Running Inkscape vector image editor with global menu and left panel:

            (Inkscape AppImage version for GNU/Linux)
            Running GIMP bitmap image editor with global menu:

            (GIMP AppImage version for GNU/Linux)Limitations
            • No Head's Up Display (HUD).
            • No Unity Dash menu.
            • No Unity Ambiance theme.
            • No running application name displayed on left side of global menu.

            1. Create vertical & global menu panels

            • 1. Click control button on right side of bottom panel
            • 2. Drag the Screen Edge button to left side of screen
            • 3. Drag the Width button so left panel has 40px size
            • 4. Click control button again and make it Bottom oriented > resize the panel height a bit
            • 5. Right-click desktop > Create new empty panel > you got a blank top panel
            • 6. Right-click top panel > Add Widgets
            • 7. Find Global Menu from widget selections > drag and drop it to the top panel

            Now you got one vertical panel on left and one global menu on top.

            (The basic look, but top panel is still empty and left panel still shows System Tray widget)
            2. Change start menu layout & add widgets
            • 1. Right-click start menu > Alternatives > Application Menu > Switch.
            • 2. Open start menu > right-click Firefox > Add to Panel > Firefox added to panel.
            • 3. Repeat above part for other applications such as System Settings, Dolphin, and so on. 

            Now you got a left panel similar to Unity's.

            3. Remove widgets & add widgets
            • 1. Remove all other widgets from left panel
            • 2. Add System Tray widget to the top panel.
            • 3. Add Digital Clock to the top panel right after System Tray.
            • 4. Add Logout widget right after Digital clock. 

            Now you should have a basic Unity look for your left and top panel.

            4. Add spacer to surround the Global Menu
            Click control button on right side of top panel > click Add Spacer 2x > drag with your cursor the first spacer to left side of Global Menu > drag with your cursor the second spacer to right side of Global Menu (right before System Tray) > now you have two Spacers surrounding Global Menu.

            (Adding space to before the Global Menu)
            (Adding space to after the Global Menu)
            5. Hide toolbox button & lock widgets
            • 1. Right-click desktop > Configuration > Tweaks > uncheck Show toolbox button > OK > you got the hamburger desktop button is now disappeared.
            • 2. Right-click top panel > Lock Widgets > all widgets are now locked. If you want to move, delete, or add anything, unlock it first.

            6. Switch to dark theme
            Go to System Settings > Workspace > select Breeze Dark > OK. Now you will have your desktop looks dark.

            7. Save your configuration
            After doing all those, your configuration is saved automatically in several TXT files under ~/.config. Filter (Ctrl+I) plasma keyword there and you will find 5 files like below. Copy them all into a safe folder as backup.

            To reuse your configuration:
            • 1. Prepare the 5 files.
            • 2. Copy 5 files and paste into ~/.config and accept Replace All.
            • 3. Logout and login. 

            Now you got your Plasma looks exactly like what your configuration says.

            (The configuration files after you did instructions above)
            That's all. I hope this small customization can increase your productivity. Happy tweaking!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            What To Do After Installing GNOME 3.32 Desktop Environment

            Wednesday 27th of March 2019 03:54:00 PM

            (A GNOME 3.32 desktop on a GNU/Linux computer)
            This simple compilation of tips introduces you useful things to do after you have a fresh GNOME 3.32 desktop environment on your GNU/Linux operating system. In most case, this tutorial will be useful for Fedora, Arch, or any other distro with vanilla (not customized) GNOME; but you can apply several tips from this to Ubuntu or other distro with custom GNOME as well. Alright, happy working!  

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            Vanilla GNOME does not have Ctrl+Alt+T associated to run Terminal. To associate this shortcut key, go to system settings > keyboard > scroll down to bottom > click plus > insert command gnome-terminal > make a shortcut Ctrl+Alt+T > OK.

            Tap to click
            By default, touchpad tap-to-click is not enabled. To enable it, go to System Settings > Touchpad > slide the toggle button "tap-to-click" from grey to blue.

            Night light
            It's a similar feature to Redshift (f.lux) program to reduce blueish light from the screen so it helps you reduce sleeplessness and eyestrain. It's an automatic feature it could change your screen color based on the time zone gradually without your interference. It's a convenient feature I personally always enable both on Plasma and GNOME. To enable it,  go to System Settings > Display > Night Light > turn it on. You should see your screen getting more and more red (or strong orange) over the night.

            Date and time
            Perhaps your clock shows the wrong time. To correct your time, go to System Setings > Date & Time > select your region (example: Jakarta, Indonesia; London, U.K.) > OK.

            Automount certain disk partition
            Another initial thing you might really want to have is automounting partitions. As long as you have GNOME Disk Utility installed, you can configure it very easily. To do it, open start menu > run Disks program > select a partition  > click Configure button > click Edit Mount Options > disable User Session Defaults (top toggle button) > make sure "Mount at system startup" is checked > OK > type your password while asked > OK.

            (First, Configure > Edit Mount Options)
             (Last, disable default options and make sure Automount is checked)

            Sort files
            I believe many of us will like sort by "Newest on top". To sort files like that on Nautilus, click sorting button > select Sort by Latest > all files sorted from newest to oldest.

            GNOME 3.32 brings a privacy controls. For example, you can disable your webcam and recent files there. To do so, go to System Settings > Privacy > Webcam: turn it off > Usage & history: turn it off.

            You can enable Screen Reader (that is, a feature to speak out loud text on your screen) by going to System Settings > Universal Access > Screen Reader: turn it on. You can also enlarge whole text on your screen by enabling Large Text on the same place.

            That's all. Enjoy GNOME!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            See GNOME 3.32 on Ubuntu 19.04 Beta

            Tuesday 26th of March 2019 01:44:00 PM
            (GNOME 3.32 "Taipei" on Ubuntu 19.04 development version)
            Although the 19.04 is still not officially released this March, but even today we can download the development version and run it (LiveCD) on our computer. We find that it includes the 3.32, the latest version of GNOME desktop environment. I want to highlight some interesting aspects of it on Ubuntu as we saw it on Fedora Rawhide few days ago. I suggest you to download the 19.04 daily-live ISO and quickly test it, I believe you can feel the performance improvements especially how quick it's now to open the start menu and it's now even quicker to search files on Nautilus. Here we go. Happy testing!
            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            1. Basic looks
            This is the desktop with original wallpaper of Ubuntu 19.04. You can start paying attention to the left vertical panel, icons on desktop area, and of course the new wallpaper. By the way, 19.04's codename is Disco Dingo.

            2. Compared to vanilla GNOME
            Default GNOME 3.32 as we saw on Fedora Rawhide is not equipped with vertical panel on left. And, vanilla decoration theme is grey (Adwaita theme) not black (Ubuntu's Yaru theme). If you look closer, control buttons are also different, default one shows only close button, while 19.04's one shows fully close-maximize-minimize.

            (Vanilla GNOME desktop on Fedora)

            (Canonical-modified GNOME on Ubuntu 19.04 Beta)
            3. Start menu
            Start menu animation is now smoother and quicker. I can say I don't feel same slowness like before compared to 3.30 and 3.28 as my laptop now renders it better. Try it and confirm this yourself.

             (Start menu on GNOME 3.32 on Ubuntu 19.04)
            Hot corner (top-left) is disabled by default on GNOME on 19.04 but it's actually enabled on the vanilla one. If you push mouse cursor to that corner, on the 19.04 nothing happens, but on Fedora Rawhide it opens desktop overview (same as pressing Super key).

            (Hot corner on 3.32 on the Rawhide while pushing mouse cursor to it)
            (No hot corner on 3.32 on the 19.04, you can only click that 'Activities' button) 
            4. Icons on desktop
            Fortunately, GNOME 3.32 on the 19.04 is already paired with Desktop Icons extension (by Carlos Soriano). This way, we can put our favorite apps, documents, folders on desktop once again (just like KDE, Windows, macOS, and Android). However, vanilla GNOME today (i.e. on Fedora Rawhide) does not allow you to put icons on desktop.

            (Default icons on desktop)
            5. Nautilus
            Once again, Nautilus changed, there is no toolbar anymore. Now all buttons are placed on title bar ("header bar" in GNOME terminology) right on left side of control buttons. When you run Nautilus, you will not find "Preferences" button anymore on desktop top panel as it's also moved into hamburger button on title bar. So, now, it's one button (Search) plus one toggle (Thumbnail/List) plus one pull down menu (Zoom, Sort by, Reload) plus one hamburger button (New Tab, Copy/Cut/Paste, Preferences).

             (Nautilus 3.32 on Ubuntu 19.04 Beta)

            (Nautilus 3.32: sorting button's menu)
            (Hamburger button's menu)
            File search is now faster than before. Try it. The search bar is also repositioned now on the title bar rather than toolbar below it.

            (Nautilus 3.32 performing search (Ctrl+F) with its search options opened)
            And, personally I didn't know 'right-click to format' feature for Disk Drive was available in Nautilus File Manager since a long time ago. See Nautilus changelog for version 3.7.90. By this, of course we now can easily format our USB Flash Drive right from our beloved file manager by a click. I can imagine how interesting to work (at home and office) with Ubuntu 19.04 GNOME 3.32 next time.

            (Right-click a mounted USB Drive and select format to reformat it)
            (Disk formatting dialog)

            6. LibreOffice

            Edited: added 27 March 2019

            Of course LibreOffice is not a part of GNOME. But LibreOffice looks good on GNOME 3.32 with Ubuntu's Yaru theming.  See screenshot below: Writer showing with a lot of toolbars (I enabled them) to show no conflict with the desktop theme.

            (See Writer and Impress icons on left vertical panel; see menu bar on black top title bar; see how visible are all icons on that 5 level toolbars)
            7. Detailed information
            Based on daily built ISO Image I downloaded, these are GNOME Apps included. Please keep in mind that these might change over time as the 19.04 is still in Beta.
            • Baobab 3.30
            • Calendar 3.32
            • Control Center 3.32
            • Disks 3.32
            • Eye of GNOME 3.32
            • Fonts 3.30
            • GDM 3.32
            • Gedit 3.32
            • Help 3.32
            • Mahjongg 3.32
            • Screenshot 3.30
            • Seahorse 3.32
            • Shotwell 0.30.2
            • Software 3.30.6
            • Sudoku 3.32
            • Terminal 3.32
            • ToDo 3.28 p { margin-bottom: 0.1in; line-height: 115%; background: transparent none repeat scroll 0% 0%; }
            ("About" dialog showing details about this system I'm using)
            (By the way, the 19.04 already uses kernel 5.0.0)
            My Comments
            I am really glad I can find latest GNOME on Ubuntu (LiveCD) without waiting for any repository so I can run and test it immediately without changing my computer. I just need to go to cdimage and download the daily-live current ISO and run it from my USB Flash Drive. I love it! I would like to say thank you to all Ubuntu developers and GNOME developers who made this reality.
            My personal comment is that this 19.04 daily ISO I tested is pretty stable on my laptop (Acer Aspire One 756: Pentium, 4GB) both in LiveCD mode and permanently installed. GNOME runs smoothly. I like how this GNOME running less heavier today on my laptop compared to the previous Stable versions.

            I feel happy with this version on 19.04 and I am waiting for the final release next April. I hope you enjoy GNOME 3.32 just as I enjoy it! Happy testing!


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Do You Want A Free GNOME Desktop Guide Book in PDF?

            Sunday 24th of March 2019 07:26:00 AM
             (GNOME User Guide viewed in Evince PDF Reader)
            GNOME official provides guide book in HTML only and not in PDF. But if you search further, you can find that openSUSE provides free 200-pages GNOME guide book in PDF. It is titled GNOME User Guide - openSUSE Leap 15.0, however, seeing how general the book is, everybody could read it even though they use instead Ubuntu or another GNU/Linux distro. It covers introduction to GNOME 3 user interface, shortcut keys, file management, system settings, network & printer sharing, image editing (GIMP), CD burning (Brasero), multimedia playback (Totem), and many more. You can download, read, print out, and redistribute this book to learn by yourself and you friends! It's also a good idea to bring printed copies to school to train students and teachers. The ebook is licensed under free license (GNU FDL) and available gratis. Go download it and happy reading!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            For Whom
            For everybody who wants to learn GNOME Desktop Environment on their computer regardless GNU/Linux operating system being used.

            • URL address:
            • File name: book.gnomeuser_color_en.pdf
            • File type: PDF
            • File size: 3.6MB
            • Title: GNOME User Guide - openSUSE Leap 15.0 
            • Author: SUSE LLC and Contributors
            • Number of pages: 203
            • Paper size: A4, Portrait (8.27 × 11.69 inch)
            • Publication Date: December 19, 2018 
            • License: GNU Free Documentation License 1.2 or 1.3
            • Price: gratis

            Table of Contents
            Part 1: Intro
            • Getting Started with the GNOME Desktop
            • Working with Your Desktop
            • Customizing Your Settings
            • Assistive Technologies

            Part 2: Connectivity
            • Accessing Network Resources
            • Managing Printers
            • Backing Up User Data
            • Passwords and Keys: Signing and Encrypting Data

            Part 3: LibreOffice
            • LibreOffice: The Office Suite
            • LibreOffice Writer
            • LibreOffice Calc
            • LibreOffice Impress, Base, Draw, and Math

            Part 4: Internet
            • Firefox: Browsing the Web
            • Evolution: E-Mailing and Calendaring
            • Pidgin: Instant Messaging
            • Ekiga: Using Voice over IP

            Part 5: Graphics & Multimedia
            • GIMP: Manipulating Graphics
            • GNOME Videos
            • Brasero: Burning CDs and DVDs

            Help and Documentation

            GNU Licenses

            A Brief About The Guide Book
            If you missed official GNOME documentation in PDF, you will find openSUSE's GNOME User Guide satisfying. It covers everything about using GNOME desktop and its apps for desktop-oriented users.  As usual, openSUSE documentation designed very professionally (just like SUSE's one) and the book layout looks very great.

             (Page 2: the book begins with intro to GNOME graphical interface in general)
            GNOME-specific parts of this guide book are:
            • The whole Part 1 (intro, session login, workspace, shortcut keys, file management, control panel, accessibility)
            • The whole Part 2 (network and printer sharing, backup, password management)
            • Part 4, particularly about GNOME Evolution (email & scheduling) and GNOME Ekiga (voice call over the internet)
            • Part 5, particularly about GIMP (Photoshop replacement) and Totem (video playback) and Brasero (CD and DVD burning)
            • Appendix A., particularly about GNOME Help (built-in documentation reader)
            Bonus parts of this guide book you might find very useful are:
            • LibreOffice sections from Part 3
            • Firefox Web Browser sections from Part 4
            • Pidgin Internet Messaging sections from Part 4

             (Page 145: how to use Pidgin Instant Messager, a program to chat in multiple chat services at once such as IRC, GTalk, Gadu-gadu, etc.)

            In simple words, by this guide book everybody could learn to use GNOME Desktop Environment and its main applications (Nautilus, System Settings, etc.) no matter they use openSUSE or other GNU/Linux distro. I wish everybody could get this book and enjoy learning. Happy reading!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Availability of GNOME 3.32 on GNU/Linux Distros

            Thursday 21st of March 2019 01:08:00 PM
            (GNOME 3.32 "Taipei" running on GNU/Linux)
            Following my Plasma 5.15 distros list, this is a list of GNOME 3.32 distros which are available as installation LiveCD. GNOME 3.32 has been released recently at 13 March 2019 and rapidly being made available into several GNU/Linux distros for desktop, either within the ISO or in the repository. At this moment, you can download any of Ubuntu 19.04 and Fedora Rawhide (for installable LiveCD), followed by openSUSE Tumbleweed, Debian Experimental, Manjaro GNOME, and Mageia 7 (by manually upgrading from respective repositories) in order to quickly test GNOME 3.32. However, please note that this is based on today's data and can be changed rapidly over time. I wish this list helps you. Go ahead, happy downloading, happy testing!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            • Fedora Rawhide
            • Ubuntu 19.04
            • openSUSE Tumbleweed
            • Manjaro GNOME
            • Mageia 7

            Information mentioned here is rapidly changing as by time more distros than mentioned in this list will include GNOME 3.32. For example, at this moment this list does not include, say, PureOS, but certainly sooner of later PureOS will include GNOME 3.32 as well even though I do not mention it here. 

            Distros mentioned here (Rawhide, Disco, etc.) are pre-release operating systems, meaning, only suitable for testing and not for daily use. I strongly suggest you to install one on a separate, dedicated computer for testing so it won't introduce you any risk when it breaks. I advise you to install not one on your daily computer for work. For example, it is good if you test the distro on one unused laptop aside from the laptop you use for work.

            Manifest file (.manifest) is a plain text file that indexes the contents of an ISO image. Reading manifest can give us details of what packages and their versions included within an ISO image.

            Ubuntu 19.04
            Good news for us that Ubuntu 19.04 pre-release already brings GNOME 3.32 built-in. We can read the manifest file (today 21 March 2019). Download it here

            (Manifest file of Disco shows gnome-shell 3.32.0)
            Fedora Rawhide
            At this moment, Fedora Rawhide includes GNOME 3.32 already and you can download it from Read more here (wiki) and here and here (Rawhide). I have installed it on my laptop and GNOME screenshot on the beginning of this article is from it.

            (Package list of Rawhide ISO (taken 19 March 2019) shows gnome-shell 3.32.0)

            Unfortunately, at this moment I can only find those two distros as desktop LiveCD with GNOME 3.32. More distros below.

            Other Distros

            If you cannot use installable LiveCD distros above, you can if you wish install any of these distros and later upgrade it with certain method to obtain GNOME 3.32.

            openSUSE Tumbleweed
            Unfortunately, up to today (21 March 2019), there is no Tumbleweed ISO includes GNOME 3.32. Anyway, download Tumbleweed here To obtain GNOME 3.32, you need to add 3 distinct repositories: openSUSE:Factory, GNOME:Factory, and GNOME:Next. You can either read the official guide in this case or simply run these command lines:
            $ sudo zypper addrepo -f openSUSE:Factory
            $ sudo zypper addrepo -f GNOME:Factory
            $ sudo zypper addrepo -f GNOME:Next
            $ sudo zypper refresh
            $ sudo zypper dup

            (GNOME:Next repository page shows gnome-shell 3.32.0)

            Debian Experimental
            Experimental repository already includes GNOME 3.32. You can download Debian 9 here and then install it and finally upgrade your desktop environment to 3.32. Follow the instruction to enable Experimental repository. And upgrade GNOME:
            $ sudo apt-get install -t experimental gnome-shell nautilus gdm3
            (Package search shows Experimental repo has gnome-shell 3.32)
            Manjaro GNOME
            The official repository has gnome-shell 3.32 already. Download Manjaro GNOME here and then install it and finally upgrade the system to obtain latest desktop environment. Don't forget that the total amount of download size is normally huge (can be 1GB or more).
            $ sudo pacman -Syu
            (Repository of Manjaro shows that gnome-shell 3.32.0 is already available)
            Mageia 7
            Just like Ubuntu 19.04, Mageia 7 is still in development. But the beta ISO is available. Download Mageia 7 beta here You can install the ISO and then upgrade it to obtain GNOME 3.32 from Cauldron repository. Read more here (package search) and here (release notes).

            (Mageia Cauldron Beta ISO image still includes 3.30 ...)
            (... but its repository already includes 3.32)
            Further Readings

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Availability of KDE Plasma 5.15 on GNU/Linux Distros

            Sunday 17th of March 2019 09:37:00 AM
            (KDE Plasma Desktop 5.15)
            We are getting excited as Plasma 5.15 has been released (since 12 February 2019) and we soon want to test it. I have tested it on Neon and it is lightweight and very impressive. This list is for you wanting to test Plasma as quick as possible by downloading GNU/Linux distros with built-in Plasma 5.15. They are Neon 5.15, Kubuntu 19.04, Chakra, KaOS, and openSUSE Tumbleweed. You can download the ISO images from links I mentioned below and quickly run a LiveCD session of them. Additionally, I also mentioned Kubuntu 18.10 and Fedora 30 on the separate section below as they don't bundle it but make it available through repositories. Anyway, go ahead and happy testing!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            Read also write ISO to USB Drive | Download ISO via torrent | Download ISO via zsync

            • Neon
            • Kubuntu
            • Fedora 
            • Manjaro
            • Chakra
            • KaOS
            • openSUSE Krypton

            First thing first
            I finished this article in Sunday 17 March 2019. As you know, GNU/Linux distros are normally developed in very very high speed so what I mentioned today (package versions) may be obsolete soon. For example, you find Plasma 5.15.3 today on Kubuntu 19.04 daily, then you may find it some days later got updated to 5.15.4. But by mentioning related links on every distro below, I hope you can obtain more information when you find my data is no longer correct in the day you do searching. Go ahead!

            Manifest file (.manifest) is a table of contents of an ISO image file. A manifest lists package names and their versions from it. Manifest is very useful for us to determine whether a package is included or its version is new enough in an ISO. Distros known to have manifests are Ubuntu and Flavors, Neon, and Manjaro.

            1. Neon 5.15
            The first choice is of course KDE neon operating system as it always brings latest Plasma right from the KDE Project itself. Latest neon today (17 March 2019) contains at least Plasma 5.15. Download it from You can run it as LiveCD or install it to your computer system.

            (Manifest file of latest Neon shows plasma-desktop version 5.15.3)

            2. Kubuntu 19.04
            The 19.04 has not been released yet. But the daily ISO image is already available and it contains Plasma 5.15.3 (at least today 17 March 2019). Download it from You can run it as LiveCD or even install it to your computer system.

            (Manifest file of Kubuntu 19.04 daily ISO shows plasma-desktop version 5.15.3)

            3. Fedora 30
            As for Fedora, at this moment you can test pre-release version of Fedora 30 to get Plasma 5.15. Download it here Wiki Fedora.  Read more here (package search).

            (Package search shows Fedora 30 has plasma-desktop 5.15.2 already)4. Manjaro KDE
            Manjaro KDE has Plasma 5.15 already. Download it here Read more here (manifest file).

            Manjaro GNU/Linux is a rolling-release desktop distro based on Arch with pacman package manager and it has an official KDE flavor. 

            (Manifest file of latest Manjaro KDE ISO shows plasma-desktop version 5.15.2)
            5. Chakra
            Chakra on the testing release got Plasma 5.15. Download it here Read more here (packages list) and here (forum announcement).

            Chakra GNU/Linux is a KDE-dedicated rolling-release desktop distro derived from Arch with pacman package manager and provides only KDE edition. 

            (Package list of latest Chakra showing plasma-desktop version 5.15.2)
            6. KaOS
            Latest bleeding edge ISO of KaOS (dated February 2019) has Plasma 5.15 already. Download it from Read more here (package search) and here (release notes).

            KaOS GNU/Linux is a KDE-dedicated rolling-release desktop distro derived from no other distro with pacman package manager. Same as Chakra, KaOS only provides KDE edition.

            (Clear statement about Plasma 5.15 availability on KaOS February)
            7. openSUSE Krypton
            Krypton is KDE-dedicated version of openSUSE rolling-release 'Tumbleweed'. It's available in both 32-bit and 64-bit. Download it from*Krypton.*.iso. The packages are promised to be always the latest. At this moment, Krypton got Plasma 5.15 already. You can run it as LiveCD or install it on your computer.

            Tumbleweed is the rolling-release version of openSUSE which always has the latest version of software packages. openSUSE Krypton is a derivative of Tumbleweed.

            (Package search of openSUSE:Factory shows plasma5-desktop version 5.15.3)
            Other Distros
            This section mentions some other distros which do not include Plasma 5.15 right within ISO but made it available in the repository.

            Kubuntu Cosmic
            Cosmic release has Plasma 5.15 already available in the Backports repository. Up to today (16 March 2019) there is still no 5.15 available for Bionic nor Xenial. I recommend you to do this upgrade on a testing computer and not on your daily use desktop.

            Caution: upgrading a system with proprietary graphics like Nvidia or Amd often causes problems like broken system or login failure. Proceed this with your own risk.

            $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports
            $ sudo apt-get update
            $ sudo apt-get upgrade
            $ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
            PCLinuxOS just recently announced the availability of Plasma 5.15.3 on its repository. If you have it installed, you can upgrade your system to get the latest Plasma. If you don't, first download PCLinuxOS ISO and then install it and finally upgrade it. You can use Synaptic to upgrade your system as recommended by official wiki.

            Some notes
            It would be nice if every distro provides .manifest file for every ISO image they have just like Ubuntu. It helps me a lot to know what packages and package versions within an ISO. For distro projects that have made it available, you did great and you all have my thanks. For distro projects that have not, you did awesome and thanks also, but I wish you could do it someday. Finally, I hope Plasma 5.15 soon to be available on Ubuntu 18.04 and 16.04.

            Happy testing!


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            XFCE + Global Menu + Capitaine Theme Pack

            Monday 11th of March 2019 01:11:00 PM

            Continuing KDE, GNOME, and MATE customization the series, it's XFCE's turn being customized with a global menu and Capitaine theme pack. We will use an XFCE theme, a GTK3 theme, an icon theme, tweak the top panel a little, and then install Plank as the dock, and finish them up with some more tweaking. I practiced this on Xubuntu 18.04 with XFCE version 4.12. I wish this helps everybody especially you who just started customizing XFCE desktop. Happy tweaking!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            On customization: KDE4 on KDE5 | KDE-MojaveCT | GNOME-McMojave | MATE-Yosemite | Pantheon-CapitaineX

            Result talks first
            The goal of this customization tutorial is to make XFCE 4.12 to look like this. It will have a global menu on a transparent top panel, translucent dock with macOS-like icon theme, an El Capitane wallpaper, and of course the exterior (XFWM) and interior (GTK3) themes which resemble macOS.

            (Top: transparent panel with global menu; middle: icons on desktop area; bottom: dock with La Capitaine icon theme; background: El Capitane wallpaper)
            I use this composition on XFCE 4.12 on Xubuntu 18.04 LTS:

            What we will do
            We will build this composition:
            • set the exterior theme into McOS-XFCE-Edition-II
            • set the interior theme into macOS-4.0
            • set the icon theme into La Capitaine
            • install xfce4-appmenu-plugin by APT command

            (Left: window decoration, middle: GTK3 interiors, right: icons)
            Install Global Menu Package
            It is not included on Xubuntu 18.04 but it is available in the repo. Just install it:
            $ sudo apt-get install xfce4-appmenu-plugin

            Step 1: set wallpaper
            Just like previous tutorials, you can download macOS wallpapers from sites like 512 pixels. For this time I use El Capitan wallpaper.

            Step 2: set window decoration
            The theme is McOS-XFCE-Edition-II XFWM Theme. Download it from Extract it into ~/.themes and enable it from start menu > Window Manager > Style > McOS-XFCE-Edition-II. Then shift the control buttons to the left by dragging the buttons arrangement under the Button layout: Active section on the right.

            (Choose the GTK3 theme and don't forget to switch the control buttons position)

            Step 3: set interior theme
            The theme is macOS Mojave GTK3 Theme. Download it from Extract it into ~/.themes and enable it from start menu > Appearances > Style > macOS-4.0 > close.

            Step 4: set icon theme
            The theme is La Capitaine. Download it from Extract it and copy the folder into ~/.icons. Enable the icon from the start menu > Appearances > Icons > La Capitaine > close.

            Step 5: set dock theme
            The theme is Mac Theme Round 3.1. Download it from Extract it and copy the folder into ~/.local/share/plank/themes. Enable it by right-clicking the dock > Preferences > Appearance > Theme: Deafult-MAC THEME(ROUND) [sic] > close.

            Step 6: set top panel
            • Add global menu
            • Set transparency
            • Remove 'taskbar applet'
            • Remove 'Whisker menu'
            • Or instead, you can omit the XFCE logo with a black apple logo if you wish

            (Panel setup: Style=Solid color, alpha=80%, and color=white)

            (Final panel, still with start menu on the left)
            Step 7: make dock a startup
            Up to this point you need to call Plank every time you started your system. That's ineffective. So you should make Plank to start automatically by right-click on desktop > Applications > Settings > Session and Startup > Application Autostart > click Add button > type the command: plank > give it a name and description as you wish > OK > close.

            Step 8: icons on desktop
            Just like KDE and MATE, XFCE allows icons on desktop. The easiest way to put one is by opening the start menu and drag one icon into the desktop. If you have deleted start menu, press Alt+F2, click the downward arrow, and drag any icon you wish from it to the desktop.

            (Example in making desktop shortcuts on XFCE)
            Finalize everything
            Up to this point, you should have at least 4 different theme folders as shown in picture below. Please check the folder paths as pointed by transparent red boxes.

            (In clockwise order: GTK3, XFWM, Plank, and icon themes)
            And you may notice that there is a disturbing horizontal drop shadow slightly on top of your dock. You can disable that, but, unfortunately, if you did it you will also disable the top panel's shadow. That's the biggest limitation of this tutorial. You find the configuration from start menu > Window Manager Tweaks > Compositor > uncheck the option Show shadows under dock windows > close. I wish I could find a way to keep the top's shadow while disabling the bottom's shadow.
            (Disabling drop shadow for dock)
            Final result
            Here's the final result if you followed all instructions. This one is Inkscape Vector Editor program running un-maximized with global menu from the top panel.

            Here's how Terminal, Parole Media Player, Thunar, and GNOME Software look like using this theme pack. Pay attention also to the active global menu.

            Here's how Thunar File Manager looks like. Actually it's not too satisfying, the GNOME's Nautilus few days ago was better than this.

            And here's the default text editor:

            Closing words
            This customization feels quicker and easier compared to MATE Desktop one. It's nice and fun to do, especially while we really can implement global menu on XFCE right now, and we can easily tweak the size and the transparency of top panel. There's not so much difference on the Plank dock side, but it's nice to see how far it can blend to the whole desktop. I admit there are things that are not too nice like there is no drop shadow under top panel and dock, no "finder" button, and the GTK3 theme I used above actually cannot blend perfectly to the system tray color (did you notice it?) and the file manager. Anyway, I hope you are satisfied with this tutorial and you can go further if you wish as I let some space for you to tweak yourself. Happy customizing, enjoy, and share it with your friend!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

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            OpenBSD 6.5 was released today, about one week ahead of schedule for this security-minded BSD operating system. OpenBSD 6.5 is bringing several prominent new features including RETGUARD as its new stack protector and OpenRSYNC as its ISC-licensed in-progress replacement to rsync. OpenBSD 6.5's new RETGUARD functionality aims to be a better stack protector on x86_64 and AArch64 with instrumenting every function return with better security properties than their traditional stack protector. Read more Also: OpenBSD 6.5

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            today's leftovers

            • Announcing Akademy 2019 in Milan, Italy (September 7th - 13th)
              Akademy 2019 will be held at the University of Milano-Bicocca in Milan, Italy, from Saturday the 7th to Friday the 13th of September. The conference is expected to draw hundreds of attendees from the global KDE community to discuss and plan the future of the community and its technology. Many participants from the broad Free and Open Source software community, local organizations and software companies will also attend. KDE e.V. is organizing Akademy 2019 with unixMiB — the Linux User Group of the University of Milano-Bicocca. unixMiB aims to spread Open Source philosophy among students.
            • Checking out Crunchbang++
            • Intel Iris Gallium3D Picks Up Conservative Rasterization Support
              On top of Intel's new open-source OpenGL driver seeing some hefty performance optimizations, the Iris Gallium3D driver has picked up another OpenGL extension ahead of the Mesa 19.1 branching.  Iris Gallium3D now supports INTEL_conservative_rasterization alongside the existing support in the i965 driver. INTEL_conservative_rasterization is the several year old Intel extension for seeing if all fragments are at least partially covered by a polygon rather than the default rasterization mode of including fragments with at least one sample covered by a polygon.