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Guides, information, and news about the Fedora operating system for users, developers, system administrators, and community members.
Updated: 8 hours 38 min ago

Podman with capabilities on Fedora

Monday 16th of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

Containerization is a booming technology. As many as seventy-five percent of global organizations could be running some type of containerization technology in the near future. Since widely used technologies are more likely to be targeted by hackers, securing containers is especially important. This article will demonstrate how POSIX capabilities are used to secure Podman containers. Podman is the default container management tool in RHEL8.

Determine the Podman container’s privilege mode

Containers run in either privileged or unprivileged mode. In privileged mode, the container uid 0 is mapped to the host’s uid 0. For some use cases, unprivileged containers lack sufficient access to the resources of the host machine. Technologies and techniques including Mandatory Access Control (apparmor, SELinux), seccomp filters, dropping of capabilities, and namespaces help to secure containers regardless of their mode of operation.

To determine the privilege mode from outside the container:

$ podman inspect --format="{{.HostConfig.Privileged}}" <container id>

If the above command returns true then the container is running in privileged mode. If it returns false then the container is running in unprivileged mode.

To determine the privilege mode from inside the container:

$ ip link add dummy0 type dummy

If this command allows you to create an interface then you are running a privileged container. Otherwise you are running an unprivileged container.


Namespaces isolate a container’s processes from arbitrary access to the resources of its host and from access to the resources of other containers running on the same host. Processes within privileged containers, however, might still be able to do things like alter the IP routing table, trace arbitrary processes, and load kernel modules. Capabilities allow one to apply finer-grained restrictions on what resources the processes within a container can access or alter; even when the container is running in privileged mode. Capabilities also allow one to assign privileges to an unprivileged container that it would not otherwise have.

For example, to add the NET_ADMIN capability to an unprivileged container so that a network interface can be created inside of the container, you would run podman with parameters similar to the following:

[root@vm1 ~]# podman run -it --cap-add=NET_ADMIN centos [root@b27fea33ccf1 /]# ip link add dummy0 type dummy [root@b27fea33ccf1 /]# ip link

The above commands demonstrate a dummy0 interface being created in an unprivileged container. Without the NET_ADMIN capability, an unprivileged container would not be able to create an interface. The above commands demonstrate how to grant a capability to an unprivileged container.

Currently, there are about 39 capabilities that can be granted or denied. Privileged containers are granted many capabilities by default. It is advisable to drop unneeded capabilities from privileged containers to make them more secure.

To drop all capabilities from a container:

$ podman run -it -d --name mycontainer --cap-drop=all centos

To list a container’s capabilities:

$ podman exec -it 48f11d9fa512 capsh --print

The above command should show that no capabilities are granted to the container.

Refer to the capabilities man page for a complete list of capabilities:

$ man capabilities

Use the capsh command to list the capabilities you currently possess:

$ capsh --print

As another example, the below command demonstrates dropping the NET_RAW capability from a container. Without the NET_RAW capability, servers on the internet cannot be pinged from within the container.

$ podman run -it --name mycontainer1 --cap-drop=net_raw centos >>> ping (will output error, operation not permitted)

As a final example, if your container were to only need the SETUID and SETGID capabilities, you could achieve such a permission set by dropping all capabilities and then re-adding only those two.

$ podman run -d --cap-drop=all --cap-add=setuid --cap-add=setgid fedora sleep 5 > /dev/null; pscap | grep sleep

The pscap command shown above should show the capabilities that have been granted to the container.

I hope you enjoyed this brief exploration of how capabilities are used to secure Podman containers.

Thank You!

Using Fedora 33 with Microsoft’s WSL2

Wednesday 11th of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

If you’re like me, you may find yourself running Windows for a variety of reasons from work to gaming. Sure you could run Fedora in a virtual machine or as a container, but those don’t blend into a common windows experience as easily as the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). Using Fedora via WSL will let you blend the two environments together for a fantastic development environment.


There are a few basics you’ll need in order to make this all work. You should be running Windows 10, and have WSL2 installed already. If not, check out the Microsoft documentation for instructions, and come back here when you’re finished. Microsoft recommends setting wsl2 as the distro default for simplicity. This guide assumes you’ve done that.

Next, you’re going to need some means of unpacking xz compressed files. You can do this with another WSL-based distribution, or use 7zip.

Download a Fedora 33 rootfs

Since Fedora doesn’t ship an actual rootfs archive, we’re going to abuse the one used to generate the container image for dockerhub. You will want to download the tar.xz file from the fedora-cloud GitHub repository. Once you have the tar.xz, uncompress it, but don’t unpack it. You want to end up with something like fedora-33-datestamp.tar. Once you have that, you’re ready to build the image.

Composing the WSL Fedora build

I prefer to use c:\distros, but you can choose nearly whatever location you want. Whatever you choose, make sure the top level path exists before you import the build. Now open a cmd or powershell prompt, because it’s time to import:

wsl.exe --import Fedora-33 c:\distros\Fedora-33 $HOME\Downloads\fedora-33.tar

You will see Fedora-33 show up in wsl’s list

PS C:\Users\jperrin> wsl.exe -l -v
  NAME                   STATE           VERSION
  Fedora-33                 Stopped         2

From here, you can start to play around with Fedora in wsl, but we have a few things we need to do to make it actually useful as a wsl distro.

wsl -d Fedora-33

This will launch Fedora’s wsl instance as the root user. From here, you’re going to install a few core packages and set a new default user. You’re also going to need to configure sudo, otherwise you won’t be able to easily elevate privileges if you need to install something else later.

dnf update
dnf install wget curl sudo ncurses dnf-plugins-core dnf-utils passwd findutils

wslutilites uses curl and wget for things like VS Code integration, so they’re useful to have around. Since you need to use a Copr repo for this, you want the added dnf functionality.

Add your user

Now it’s time to add your user, and set it as the default.

useradd -G wheel yourusername
passwd yourusername

Now that you’ve created your username and added a password, make sure they work. Exit the wsl instance, and launch it again, this time specifying the username. You’re also going to test sudo, and check your uid.

wsl -d Fedora-33 -u yourusername
$id -u
$ sudo cat /etc/shadow

Assuming everything worked fine, you’re now ready to set the default user for your Fedora setup in Windows. To do this, exit the wsl instance and get back into Powershell. This Powershell one-liner configures your user properly:

Get-ItemProperty Registry::HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Lxss\*\ DistributionName | Where-Object -Property DistributionName -eq Fedora-33  | Set-ItemProperty -Name DefaultUid -Value 1000

Now you should be able to launch WSL again without specifying a user, and be yourself instead of root.


From here, you’re done getting the basic Fedora 33 setup running in wsl, but it doesn’t have the Windows integration piece yet. If this is something you want, there’s a Copr repo to enable. If you choose to add this piece, you’ll be able to run Windows apps directly from inside your shell, as well as integrate your Linux environment easily with VS Code. Note that Copr is not officially supported by Fedora infrastructure. Use packages at your own risk

dnf copr enable trustywolf/wslu

Now you can go configure your terminal, setup a Python development environment, or however else you want to use Fedora 33. Enjoy!

Getting started with Stratis encryption

Monday 9th of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

Stratis is described on its official website as an “easy to use local storage management for Linux.” See this short video for a quick demonstration of the basics. The video was recorded on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 system. The concepts shown in the video also apply to Stratis in Fedora.

Stratis version 2.1 introduces support for encryption. Continue reading to learn how to get started with encryption in Stratis.


Encryption requires Stratis version 2.1 or greater. The examples in this post use a pre-release of Fedora 33. Stratis 2.1 will be available in the final release of Fedora 33.

You’ll also need at least one available block device to create an encrypted pool. The examples shown below were done on a KVM virtual machine with a 5 GB virtual disk drive (/dev/vdb).

Create a key in the kernel keyring

The Linux kernel keyring is used to store the encryption key. For more information on the kernel keyring, refer to the keyrings manual page (man keyrings).  

Use the stratis key set command to set up the key within the kernel keyring.  You must specify where the key should be read from. To read the key from standard input, use the –capture-key option. To retrieve the key from a file, use the –keyfile-path <file> option. The last parameter is a key description. It will be used later when you create the encrypted Stratis pool.

For example, to create a key with the description pool1key, and to read the key from standard input, you would enter:

# stratis key set --capture-key pool1key Enter desired key data followed by the return key:

The command prompts us to type the key data / passphrase, and the key is then created within the kernel keyring.  

To verify that the key was created, run stratis key list:

# stratis key list Key Description pool1key

This verifies that the pool1key was created. Note that these keys are not persistent. If the host is rebooted, the key will need to be provided again before the encrypted Stratis pool can be accessed (this process is covered later).

If you have multiple encrypted pools, they can have a separate keys, or they can share the same key.

The keys can also be viewed using the following keyctl commands:

# keyctl get_persistent @s 318044983 # keyctl show Session Keyring  701701270 --alswrv      0     0  keyring: _ses  649111286 --alswrv      0 65534   \_ keyring: _uid.0  318044983 ---lswrv      0 65534   \_ keyring: _persistent.0 1051260141 --alswrv      0     0       \_ user: stratis-1-key-pool1key Create the encrypted Stratis pool

Now that a key has been created for Stratis, the next step is to create the encrypted Stratis pool. Encrypting a pool can only be done at pool creation. It isn’t currently possible to encrypt an existing pool.

Use the stratis pool create command to create a pool. Add –key-desc and the key description that you provided in the previous step (pool1key). This will signal to Stratis that the pool should be encrypted using the provided key. The below example creates the Stratis pool on /dev/vdb, and names it pool1. Be sure to specify an empty/available device on your system.

# stratis pool create --key-desc pool1key pool1 /dev/vdb

You can verify that the pool has been created with the stratis pool list command:

# stratis pool list  Name                     Total Physical   Properties pool1   4.98 GiB / 37.63 MiB / 4.95 GiB      ~Ca, Cr

In the sample output shown above, ~Ca indicates that caching is disabled (the tilde negates the property). Cr indicates that encryption is enabled.  Note that caching and encryption are mutually exclusive. Both features cannot be simultaneously enabled.

Next, create a filesystem. The below example, demonstrates creating a filesystem named filesystem1, mounting it at the /filesystem1 mountpoint, and creating a test file in the new filesystem:

# stratis filesystem create pool1 filesystem1 # mkdir /filesystem1 # mount /stratis/pool1/filesystem1 /filesystem1 # cd /filesystem1 # echo "this is a test file" > testfile Access the encrypted pool after a reboot

When you reboot you’ll notice that Stratis no longer shows your encrypted pool or its block device:

# stratis pool list Name   Total Physical   Properties # stratis blockdev list Pool Name   Device Node   Physical Size   Tier

To access the encrypted pool, first re-create the key with the same key description and key data / passphrase that you used previously:

# stratis key set --capture-key pool1key Enter desired key data followed by the return key:

Next, run the stratis pool unlock command, and verify that you can now see the pool and its block device:

# stratis pool unlock # stratis pool list Name                      Total Physical   Properties pool1   4.98 GiB / 583.65 MiB / 4.41 GiB      ~Ca, Cr # stratis blockdev list Pool Name   Device Node   Physical Size   Tier pool1       /dev/dm-2          4.98 GiB   Data

Next, mount the filesystem and verify that you can access the test file you created previously:

# mount /stratis/pool1/filesystem1 /filesystem1/ # cat /filesystem1/testfile  this is a test file Use a systemd unit file to automatically unlock a Stratis pool at boot

It is possible to automatically unlock your Stratis pool at boot without manual intervention. However, a file containing the key must be available. Storing the key in a file might be a security concern in some environments.

The systemd unit file shown below provides a simple method to unlock a Stratis pool at boot and mount the filesystem. Feedback on a better/alternative methods is welcome. You can provide suggestions in the comment section at the end of this article.

Start by creating your key file with the following command. Be sure to substitute passphrase with the same key data / passphrase you entered previously.

# echo -n passphrase > /root/pool1key

Make sure that the file is only readable by root:

# chmod 400 /root/pool1key # chown root:root /root/pool1key

Create a systemd unit file at /etc/systemd/system/stratis-filesystem1.service with the following content:

[Unit] Description = stratis mount pool1 filesystem1 file system After = stratisd.service [Service] ExecStartPre=sleep 2 ExecStartPre=stratis key set --keyfile-path /root/pool1key pool1key ExecStartPre=stratis pool unlock ExecStartPre=sleep 3 ExecStart=mount /stratis/pool1/filesystem1 /filesystem1 RemainAfterExit=yes [Install] WantedBy =

Next, enable the service so that it will run at boot:

# systemctl enable stratis-filesystem1.service

Now reboot and verify that the Stratis pool has been automatically unlocked and that its filesystem is mounted.

Summary and conclusion

In today’s environment, encryption is a must for many people and organizations. This post demonstrated how to enable encryption in Stratis 2.1.

Reclaim hard-drive space with LVM

Friday 6th of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

LVM is a tool for logical volume management which includes allocating disks, striping, mirroring and resizing logical volumes. It is commonly used on Fedora installations (prior to BTRFS as default it was LVM+Ext4). But have you ever started up your system to find out that Gnome just said the home volume is almost out of space! Luckily, there is likely some space sitting around in another volume, unused and ready to re-alocate. Here’s how to reclaim hard-drive space with LVM.

The key to easily re-alocate space between volumes is the Logical Volume Manager (LVM). Fedora 32 and before use LVM to divide disk space by default. This technology is similar to standard hard-drive partitions, but LVM is a lot more flexible. LVM enables not only flexible volume size management, but also advanced capabilities such as read-write snapshots, striping or mirroring data across multiple drives, using a high-speed drive as a cache for a slower drive, and much more. All of these advanced options can get a bit overwhelming, but resizing a volume is straight-forward.

LVM basics

The volume group serves as the main container in the LVM system. By default Fedora only defines a single volume group, but there can be as many as needed. Actual hard-drive and hard-drive partitions are added to the volume group as physical volumes. Physical volumes add available free space to the volume group. A typical Fedora install has one formatted boot partition, and the rest of the drive is a partition configured as an LVM physical volume.

Out of this pool of available space, the volume group allocates one or more logical volumes. These volumes are similar to hard-drive partitions, but without the limitation of contiguous space on the disk. LVM logical volumes can even span multiple devices! Just like hard-drive partitions, logical volumes have a defined size and can contain any filesystem which can then be mounted to specific directories.

What’s needed

Confirm the system uses LVM with the gnome-disks application, and make sure there is free space available in some other volume. Without space to reclaim from another volume, this guide isn’t useful. A Fedora live CD/USB is also needed. Any file system that needs to shrink must be unmounted. Running from a live image allows all the volumes on the hard-disk to remain unmounted, even important directories like / and /home.

Use gnome-disks to verify free space A word of warning

No data should be lost by following this guide, but it does muck around with some very low-level and powerful commands. One mistake could destroy all data on the hard-drive. So backup all the data on the disk first!

Resizing LVM volumes

To begin, boot the Fedora live image and select Try Fedora at the dialog. Next, use the Run Command to launch the blivet-gui application (accessible by pressing Alt-F2, typing blivet-gui, then pressing enter). Select the volume group on the left under LVM. The logical volumes are on the right.

Explore logical volumes in blivet-gui

The logical volume labels consist of both the volume group name and the logical volume name. In the example, the volume group is “fedora_localhost-live” and there are “home”, “root”, and “swap” logical volumes allocated. To find the full volume, select each one, click on the gear icon, and choose resize. The slider in the resize dialog indicates the allowable sizes for the volume. The minimum value on the left is the space already in use within the file system, so this is the minimum possible volume size (without deleting data). The maximum value on the right is the greatest size the volume can have based on available free space in the volume group.

Resize dialog in blivet-gui

A grayed out resize option means the volume is full and there is no free space in the volume group. It’s time to change that! Look through all of the volumes to find one with plenty of extra space, like in the screenshot above. Move the slider to the left to set the new size. Free up enough space to be useful for the full volume, but still leave plenty of space for future data growth. Otherwise, this volume will be the next to fill up.

Click resize and note that a new item appears in the volume listing: free space. Now select the full volume that started this whole endeavor, and move the slider all the way to the right. Press resize and marvel at the new improved volume layout. However, nothing has changed on the hard drive yet. Click on the check-mark to commit the changes to disk.

Review changes in blivet-gui

Review the summary of the changes, and if everything looks right, click Ok to proceed. Wait for blivet-gui to finish. Now reboot back into the main Fedora install and enjoy all the new space in the previously full volume.

Planning for the future

It is challenging to know how much space any particular volume will need in the future. Instead of immediately allocating all available free space, consider leaving it free in the volume group. In fact, Fedora Server reserves space in the volume group by default. Extending a volume is possible while it is online and in use. No live image or reboot needed. When a volume is almost full, easily extend the volume using part of the available free space and keep working. Unfortunately the default disk manager, gnome-disks, does not support LVM volume resizing, so install blivet-gui for a graphical management tool. Alternately, there is a simple terminal command to extend a volume:

lvresize -r -L +1G /dev/fedora_localhost-live/root Wrap-up

Reclaiming hard-drive space with LVM just scratches the surface of LVM capabilities. Most people, especially on the desktop, probably don’t need the more advanced features. However, LVM is there when the need arises, though it can get a bit complex to implement. BTRFS is the default filesystem, without LVM, starting with Fedora 33. BTRFS can be easier to manage while still flexible enough for most common usages. Check out the recent Fedora Magazine articles on BTRFS to learn more.

Contribute at the Fedora CoreOS Test Day

Wednesday 4th of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

The Fedora 33 CoreOS Test Day focuses on testing FCOS based on Fedora 33. The FCOS next stream is already rebased on Fedora 33 content, which will be coming soon to testing and stable. To prepare for the content being promoted to other streams the Fedora CoreOS and QA teams have organized a test day on Friday, November 06, 2020 (results accepted through Thursday, November 12). Refer to the wiki page for links to the test cases and materials you’ll need to participate. Read below for details.

How does a test day work?

A test day is an event where anyone can help make sure changes in Fedora work well in an upcoming release. Fedora community members often participate, and the public is welcome at these events. If you’ve never contributed before, this is a perfect way to get started.

To contribute, you only need to be able to do the following things:

  • Download test materials, which include some large files
  • Read and follow directions step by step

The wiki page for the test day has a lot of good information on what and how to test. After you’ve done some testing, you can log your results in the test day web application. If you’re available on or around the day of the event, please do some testing and report your results.

Happy testing, and we hope to see you on test day.

4 cool new projects to try in COPR from October 2020

Monday 2nd of November 2020 08:00:00 AM

COPR is a collection of personal repositories for software
that isn’t carried in Fedora. Some software doesn’t conform to
standards that allow easy packaging. Or it may not meet other Fedora
standards, despite being free and open-source. COPR can offer these
projects outside the Fedora set of packages. Software in COPR isn’t
supported by Fedora infrastructure or signed by the project. However,
it can be a neat way to try new or experimental software.

This article presents a few new and interesting projects in COPR. If
you’re new to using COPR, see the COPR User Documentation
for how to get started.


Dialect translates text to foreign languages using Google Translate. It remembers your translation history and supports features such as automatic language detection and text to speech. The user interface is minimalistic and mimics the Google Translate tool itself, so it is really easy to use.

Installation instructions

The repo currently provides Dialect for Fedora 33 and Fedora
Rawhide. To install it, use these commands:

sudo dnf copr enable lyessaadi/dialect sudo dnf install dialect GitHub CLI

gh is an official GitHub command-line client. It provides fast
access and full control over your project issues, pull requests, and
releases, right in the terminal. Issues (and everything else) can also
be easily viewed in the web browser for a more standard user interface
or sharing with others.

Installation instructions

The repo currently provides gh for Fedora 33 and Fedora
Rawhide. To install it, use these commands:

sudo dnf copr enable jdoss/github-cli sudo dnf install github-cli Glide

Glide is a minimalistic media player based on GStreamer. It
can play both local and remote files in any multimedia format
supported by GStreamer itself. If you are in need of a multi-platform
media player with a simple user interface, you might want to give Glide a try.

Installation instructions

The repo currently provides Glide for Fedora 32, 33, and
Rawhide. To install it, use these commands:

sudo dnf copr enable atim/glide-rs sudo dnf install glide-rs Vim ALE

ALE is a plugin for Vim text editor, providing syntax and
semantic error checking. It also brings support for fixing code and
many other IDE-like features such as TAB-completion, jumping to
definitions, finding references, viewing documentation, etc.

Installation instructions

The repo currently provides vim-ale for Fedora 31,
32, 33, and Rawhide, as well as for EPEL8. To install it, use these

sudo dnf copr enable praiskup/vim-ale sudo dnf install vim-ale

Editors note: Previous COPR articles can be found here.

How to rebase to Fedora 33 on Silverblue

Friday 30th of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

Silverblue is an operating system for your desktop built on Fedora. It’s excellent for daily use, development, and container-based workflows. It offers numerous advantages such as being able to roll back in case of any problems. If you want to update to Fedora 33 on your Silverblue system, this article tells you how. It not only shows you what to do, but also how to revert things if something unforeseen happens.

Prior to actually doing the rebase to Fedora 33, you should apply any pending updates. Enter the following in the terminal:

$ rpm-ostree update

or install updates through GNOME Software and reboot.

Rebasing using GNOME Software

The GNOME Software shows you that there is new version of Fedora available on the Updates screen.

Fedora 33 is available

First thing you need to do is to download the new image, so click on the Download button. This will take some time and after it’s done you will see that the update is ready to install.

Fedora 33 is ready for installation

Click on the Install button. This step will take only a few moments and then you will be prompted to restart your computer.

Restart is needed to rebase to Fedora 33 Silverblue

Click on Restart button and you are done. After restart you will end up in new and shiny release of Fedora 33. Easy, isn’t it?

Rebasing using terminal

If you prefer to do everything in a terminal, than this next guide is for you.

Rebasing to Fedora 33 using terminal is easy. First, check if the 33 branch is available:

$ ostree remote refs fedora

You should see the following in the output:


Next, rebase your system to the Fedora 33 branch.

$ rpm-ostree rebase fedora:fedora/33/x86_64/silverblue

Finally, the last thing to do is restart your computer and boot to Fedora 33.

How to roll back

If anything bad happens—for instance, if you can’t boot to Fedora 33 at all—it’s easy to go back. Pick the previous entry in the GRUB menu at boot, and your system will start in its previous state before switching to Fedora 33. To make this change permanent, use the following command:

$ rpm-ostree rollback

That’s it. Now you know how to rebase Silverblue to Fedora 33 and roll back. So why not do it today?

What’s new in Fedora 33 Workstation

Wednesday 28th of October 2020 01:07:37 PM

Fedora 33 Workstation is the latest release of our free, leading-edge operating system. You can download it from the official website here right now. There are several new and noteworthy changes in Fedora 33 Workstation. Read more details below.

GNOME 3.38

Fedora 33 Workstation includes the latest release of GNOME Desktop Environment for users of all types. GNOME 3.38 in Fedora 33 Workstation includes many updates and improvements, including:

A new GNOME Tour app

New users are now greeted by “a new Tour application, highlighting the main functionality of the desktop and providing first time users a nice welcome to GNOME.”

The new GNOME Tour application in Fedora 33 Drag to reorder apps

GNOME 3.38 replaces the previously split Frequent and All apps views with a single customizable and consistent view that allows you to reorder apps and organize them into custom folders. Simply click and drag to move apps around.

GNOME 3.38 Drag to Reorder Improved screen recording

The screen recording infrastructure in GNOME Shell has been improved to take advantage of PipeWire and kernel APIs. This will help reduce resource consumption and improve responsiveness.

GNOME 3.38 also provides many additional features and enhancements. Check out the GNOME 3.38 Release Notes for further information.

B-tree file system

As announced previously, new installations of Fedora 33 will default to using Btrfs. Features and enhancements are added to Btrfs with each new kernel release. The change log has a complete summary of the features that each new kernel version brings to Btrfs.

Swap on ZRAM

Anaconda and Fedora IoT have been using swap-on-zram by default for years. With Fedora 33, swap-on-zram will be enabled by default instead of a swap partition. Check out the Fedora wiki page for more details about swap-on-zram.

Nano by default

Fresh Fedora 33 installations will set the EDITOR environment variable to nano by default. This change affects several command line tools that spawn a text editor when they require user input. With earlier releases, this environment variable default was unspecified, leaving it up to the individual application to pick a default editor. Typically, applications would use vi as their default editor due to it being a small application that is traditionally available on the base installation of most Unix/Linux operating systems. Since Fedora 33 includes nano in its base installation, and since nano is more intuitive for a beginning user to use, Fedora 33 will use nano by default. Users who want vi can, of course, override the value of the EDITOR variable in their own environment. See the Fedora change request for more details.

Fedora 33 is officially here!

Tuesday 27th of October 2020 02:00:14 PM

Today, I’m excited to share the results of the hard work of thousands of contributors to the Fedora Project: our latest release, Fedora 33, is here! This is a big release with a lot of change, but I believe all that work will also make it a comfortable one, fulfilling our goal of bringing you the latest stable, powerful, and robust free and open source software in many easy to use offerings. 

If you just want to get to the bits without delay, head over to right now. For details, read on!

Find the Fedora flavor that’s right for you!

Fedora Editions are targeted outputs geared toward specific “showcase” uses on the desktop, in server and cloud environments—and now for Internet of Things as well.

Fedora Workstation focuses on the desktop, and in particular, it’s geared toward software developers who want a “just works” Linux operating system experience. This release features GNOME 3.38, which has plenty of great improvements as usual. The addition of the Tour application helps new users learn their way around. And like all of our other desktop-oriented variants, Fedora Workstation now uses BTRFS as the default filesystem. This advanced filesystem lays the foundation for bringing a lot of great enhancements in upcoming releases. For your visual enjoyment, Fedora 33 Workstation now features an animated background (based on time of day) by default.

Fedora CoreOS is an emerging Fedora Edition. It’s an automatically-updating, minimal operating system for running containerized workloads securely and at scale. It offers several update streams that can be followed for automatic updates that occur roughly every two weeks. Currently the next stream is based on Fedora 33, with the testing and stable streams to follow. You can find information about released artifacts that follow the next stream from the download page and information about how to use those artifacts in the Fedora CoreOS Documentation.

Fedora IoT, newly promoted to Edition status, provides a strong foundation for IoT ecosystems and edge computing use cases. Among many other features, Fedora 33 IoT introduces the Platform AbstRaction for SECurity (PARSEC), an open-source initiative to provide a common API to hardware security and cryptographic services in a platform-agnostic way.

Of course, we produce more than just the Editions. Fedora Spins and Labs target a variety of audiences and use cases, including Fedora CompNeuro, which brings a plethora of open source computational modelling tools for neuroscience, and desktop environments like KDE Plasma and Xfce

And, don’t forget our alternate architectures: ARM AArch64, Power, and S390x. New in Fedora 33, AArch64 users can use the .NET Core language for cross-platform development. We have improved support for Pine64 devices, NVidia Jetson 64 bit platforms, and the Rockchip system-on-a-chip devices including the Rock960, RockPro64, and Rock64. (However, a late-breaking note: there may be problems booting on some of these devices. Upgrading from existing Fedora 32 will be fine. More info will be on the Common Bugs page as we have it.)

We’re also excited to announce that the Fedora Cloud Base Image and Fedora CoreOS will be available in Amazon’s AWS Marketplace for the first time with Fedora 33. Fedora cloud images have been available in the Amazon cloud for over a decade, and you can launch our official images by AMI ID or with a click. The Marketplace provides an alternate way to get the same thing, with significantly wider visibility for Fedora. This will also make our cloud images available in new AWS regions more quickly. Thank you especially to David Duncan for making this happen!

General improvements

No matter what variant of Fedora you use, you’re getting the latest the open source world has to offer. Following our “First” foundation, we’ve updated key programming language and system library packages, including Python 3.9, Ruby on Rails 6.0, and Perl 5.32. In Fedora KDE, we’ve followed the work in Fedora 32 Workstation and enabled the EarlyOOM service by default to improve the user experience in low-memory situations.

To make the default Fedora experience better, we’ve set nano as the default editor. nano is a friendly editor for new users. Those of you who want the power of editors like vi can, of course, set your own default.

We’re excited for you to try out the new release! Go to and download it now. Or if you’re already running a Fedora operating system, follow the easy upgrade instructions. For more information on the new features in Fedora 33, see the release notes.

A note on Secure Boot

Secure Boot is a security standard which ensures that only officially-signed operating system software can load on your computer. This is important for preventing persistent malware which could hide itself in your computer’s firmware and survive even an operating system reinstallation. However, in the wake of the Boot Hole vulnerability, the cryptographic certificate used to sign Fedora bootloader software will be revoked and replaced with a new one. Because this will have a broad impact, revocation should not happen widely until the second quarter of 2021 or later.

However, some users may have received this revocation from other operating systems or firmware updates already. In that case, Fedora installations will not boot with Secure Boot enabled. To be clear, this will not affect most users. If it does affect you, you can boot with Secure Boot disabled for the time being. We will release an update signed with the new certificate to be available on all supported releases well before broad-scale certificate revocation takes place, and at that point Secure Boot should be reenabled.

In the unlikely event of a problem….

If you run into a problem, check out the Fedora 33 Common Bugs page, and if you have questions, visit our Ask Fedora user-support platform.

Thank you everyone

Thanks to the thousands of people who contributed to the Fedora Project in this release cycle, and especially to those of you who worked extra hard to make this another on-time release during a pandemic. Fedora is a community, and it’s great to see how much we’ve supported each other.

Contribute at the Fedora Test Week for Kernel 5.9

Saturday 24th of October 2020 10:34:00 AM

The kernel team is working on final integration for kernel 5.9. This version was just recently released, and will arrive soon in Fedora. As a result, the Fedora kernel and QA teams have organized a test week from Monday, October 26, 2020 through Monday, November 02, 2020. Refer to the wiki page for links to the test images you’ll need to participate. Read below for details.

How does a test week work?

A test week is an event where anyone can help make sure changes in Fedora work well in an upcoming release. Fedora community members often participate, and the public is welcome at these events. If you’ve never contributed before, this is a perfect way to get started.

To contribute, you only need to be able to do the following things:

  • Download test materials, which include some large files
  • Read and follow directions step by step

The wiki page for the kernel test day has a lot of good information on what and how to test. After you’ve done some testing, you can log your results in the test day web application. If you’re available on or around the day of the event, please do some testing and report your results. We have a document which provides all the steps written.

Happy testing, and we hope to see you on test day.

Secure NTP with NTS

Friday 23rd of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

Many computers use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize their system clocks over the internet. NTP is one of the few unsecured internet protocols still in common use. An attacker that can observe network traffic between a client and server can feed the client with bogus data and, depending on the client’s implementation and configuration, force it to set its system clock to any time and date. Some programs and services might not work if the client’s system clock is not accurate. For example, a web browser will not work correctly if the web servers’ certificates appear to be expired according to the client’s system clock. Use Network Time Security (NTS) to secure NTP.

Fedora 331 is the first Fedora release to support NTS. NTS is a new authentication mechanism for NTP. It enables clients to verify that the packets they receive from the server have not been modified while in transit. The only thing an attacker can do when NTS is enabled is drop or delay packets. See RFC8915 for further details about NTS.

NTP can be secured well with symmetric keys. Unfortunately, the server has to have a different key for each client and the keys have to be securely distributed. That might be practical with a private server on a local network, but it does not scale to a public server with millions of clients.

NTS includes a Key Establishment (NTS-KE) protocol that automatically creates the encryption keys used between the server and its clients. It uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) on TCP port 4460. It is designed to scale to very large numbers of clients with a minimal impact on accuracy. The server does not need to keep any client-specific state. It provides clients with cookies, which are encrypted and contain the keys needed to authenticate the NTP packets. Privacy is one of the goals of NTS. The client gets a new cookie with each server response, so it doesn’t have to reuse cookies. This prevents passive observers from tracking clients migrating between networks.

The default NTP client in Fedora is chrony. Chrony added NTS support in version 4.0. The default configuration hasn’t changed. Chrony still uses public servers from the project and NTS is not enabled by default.

Currently, there are very few public NTP servers that support NTS. The two major providers are Cloudflare and Netnod. The Cloudflare servers are in various places around the world. They use anycast addresses that should allow most clients to reach a close server. The Netnod servers are located in Sweden. In the future we will probably see more public NTP servers with NTS support.

A general recommendation for configuring NTP clients for best reliability is to have at least three working servers. For best accuracy, it is recommended to select close servers to minimize network latency and asymmetry caused by asymmetric network routing. If you are not concerned about fine-grained accuracy, you can ignore this recommendation and use any NTS servers you trust, no matter where they are located.

If you do want high accuracy, but you don’t have a close NTS server, you can mix distant NTS servers with closer non-NTS servers. However, such a configuration is less secure than a configuration using NTS servers only. The attackers still cannot force the client to accept arbitrary time, but they do have a greater control over the client’s clock and its estimate of accuracy, which may be unacceptable in some environments.

Enable client NTS in the installer

When installing Fedora 33, you can enable NTS in the Time & Date dialog in the Network Time configuration. Enter the name of the server and check the NTS support before clicking the + (Add) button. You can add one or more servers or pools with NTS. To remove the default pool of servers (, uncheck the corresponding mark in the Use column.

Network Time configuration in Fedora installer Enable client NTS in the configuration file

If you upgraded from a previous Fedora release, or you didn’t enable NTS in the installer, you can enable NTS directly in /etc/chrony.conf. Specify the server with the nts option in addition to the recommended iburst option. For example:

server iburst nts server iburst nts server iburst nts

You should also allow the client to save the NTS keys and cookies to disk, so it doesn’t have to repeat the NTS-KE session on each start. Add the following line to chrony.conf, if it is not already present:

ntsdumpdir /var/lib/chrony

If you don’t want NTP servers provided by DHCP to be mixed with the servers you have specified, remove or comment out the following line in chrony.conf:

sourcedir /run/chrony-dhcp

After you have finished editing chrony.conf, save your changes and restart the chronyd service:

systemctl restart chronyd Check client status

Run the following command under the root user to check whether the NTS key establishment was successful:

# chronyc -N authdata Name/IP address Mode KeyID Type KLen Last Atmp NAK Cook CLen ========================================================================= NTS 1 15 256 33m 0 0 8 100 NTS 1 15 256 33m 0 0 8 100 NTS 1 15 256 33m 0 0 8 100

The KeyID, Type, and KLen columns should have non-zero values. If they are zero, check the system log for error messages from chronyd. One possible cause of failure is a firewall is blocking the client’s connection to the server’s TCP port ( port 4460).

Another possible cause of failure is a certificate that is failing to verify because the client’s clock is wrong. This is a chicken-or-the-egg type problem with NTS. You may need to manually correct the date or temporarily disable NTS in order to get NTS working. If your computer has a real-time clock, as almost all computers do, and it’s backed up by a good battery, this operation should be needed only once.

If the computer doesn’t have a real-time clock or battery, as is common with some small ARM computers like the Raspberry Pi, you can add the -s option to /etc/sysconfig/chronyd to restore time saved on the last shutdown or reboot. The clock will be behind the true time, but if the computer wasn’t shut down for too long and the server’s certificates were not renewed too close to their expiration, it should be sufficient for the time checks to succeed. As a last resort, you can disable the time checks with the nocerttimecheck directive. See the chrony.conf(5) man page for details.

Run the following command to confirm that the client is making NTP measurements:

# chronyc -N sources MS Name/IP address Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample =============================================================================== ^* 3 6 377 45 +355us[ +375us] +/- 11ms ^+ 1 6 377 44 +237us[ +237us] +/- 23ms ^+ 1 6 377 44 -170us[ -170us] +/- 22ms

The Reach column should have a non-zero value; ideally 377. The value 377 shown above is an octal number. It indicates that the last eight requests all had a valid response. The validation check will include NTS authentication if enabled. If the value only rarely or never gets to 377, it indicates that NTP requests or responses are getting lost in the network. Some major network operators are known to have middleboxes that block or limit rate of large NTP packets as a mitigation for amplification attacks that exploit the monitoring protocol of ntpd. Unfortunately, this impacts NTS-protected NTP packets, even though they don’t cause any amplification. The NTP working group is considering an alternative port for NTP as a workaround for this issue.

Enable NTS on the server

If you have your own NTP server running chronyd, you can enable server NTS support to allow its clients to be synchronized securely. If the server is a client of other servers, it should use NTS or a symmetric key for its own synchronization. The clients assume the synchronization chain is secured between all servers up to the primary time servers.

Enabling server NTS is similar to enabling HTTPS on a web server. You just need a private key and certificate. The certificate could be signed by the Let’s Encrypt authority using the certbot tool, for example. When you have the key and certificate file (including intermediate certificates), specify them in chrony.conf with the following directives:

ntsserverkey /etc/pki/tls/private/ ntsservercert /etc/pki/tls/certs/

Make sure the ntsdumpdir directive mentioned previously in the client configuration is present in chrony.conf. It allows the server to save its keys to disk, so the clients of the server don’t have to get new keys and cookies when the server is restarted.

Restart the chronyd service:

systemctl restart chronyd

If there are no error messages in the system log from chronyd, it should be accepting client connections. If the server has a firewall, it needs to allow both the UDP 123 and TCP 4460 ports for NTP and NTS-KE respectively.

You can perform a quick test from a client machine with the following command:

$ chronyd -Q -t 3 'server iburst nts maxsamples 1' 2020-10-13T12:00:52Z chronyd version 4.0 starting (+CMDMON +NTP +REFCLOCK +RTC +PRIVDROP +SCFILTER +SIGND +ASYNCDNS +NTS +SECHASH +IPV6 +DEBUG) 2020-10-13T12:00:52Z Disabled control of system clock 2020-10-13T12:00:55Z System clock wrong by -0.001032 seconds (ignored) 2020-10-13T12:00:55Z chronyd exiting

If you see a System clock wrong message, it’s working correctly.

On the server, you can use the following command to check how many NTS-KE connections and authenticated NTP packets it has handled:

# chronyc serverstats NTP packets received : 2143106240 NTP packets dropped : 117180834 Command packets received : 16819527 Command packets dropped : 0 Client log records dropped : 574257223 NTS-KE connections accepted: 104 NTS-KE connections dropped : 0 Authenticated NTP packets : 52139

If you see non-zero NTS-KE connections accepted and Authenticated NTP packets, it means at least some clients were able to connect to the NTS-KE port and send an authenticated NTP request.

— Cover photo by Louis. K on Unsplash —

1. The Fedora 33 Beta installer contains an older chrony prerelease which doesn’t work with current NTS servers because the NTS-KE port has changed. Consequently, in the Network Time configuration in the installer, the servers will always appear as not working. After installation, the chrony package needs to be updated before it will work with current servers.

Incremental backup with Butterfly Backup

Wednesday 21st of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

This article explains how to make incremental or differential backups, with a catalog available to restore (or export) at the point you want, with Butterfly Backup.


Butterfly Backup is a simple wrapper of rsync written in python; the first requirement is python3.3 or higher (plus module cryptography for init action). Other requirements are openssh and rsync (version 2.5 or higher). Ok, let’s go!

[Editors note: rsync version 3.2.3 is already installed on Fedora 33 systems]

$ sudo dnf install python3 openssh rsync git $ sudo pip3 install cryptography Installation

After that, installing Butterfly Backup is very simple by using the following commands to clone the repository locally, and set up Butterfly Backup for use:

$ git clone $ cd Butterfly-Backup $ sudo python3 $ bb --help $ man bb

To upgrade, you would use the same commands too.


Butterfly Backup is a server to client tool and is installed on a server (or workstation). The restore process restores the files into the specified client. This process shares some of the options available to the backup process.

Backups are organized accord to precise catalog; this is an example:

$ tree destination/of/backup . ├── destination │ ├── hostname or ip of the PC under backup │ │ ├── timestamp folder │ │ │ ├── backup folders │ │ │ ├── backup.log │ │ │ └── restore.log │ │ ├─── general.log │ │ └─── symlink of last backup │ ├── export.log ├── backup.list └── .catalog.cfg

Butterfly Backup has six main operations, referred to as actions, you can get information about them with the –help command.

$ bb --help usage: bb [-h] [--verbose] [--log] [--dry-run] [--version] {config,backup,restore,archive,list,export} ... Butterfly Backup optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --verbose, -v Enable verbosity --log, -l Create a log --dry-run, -N Dry run mode --version, -V Print version action: Valid action {config,backup,restore,archive,list,export} Available actions config Configuration options backup Backup options restore Restore options archive Archive options list List options export Export options Configuration

Configuration mode is straight forward; If you’re already familiar with the exchange keys and OpenSSH, you probably won’t need it. First, you must create a configuration (rsa keys), for instance:

$ bb config --new SUCCESS: New configuration successfully created!

After creating the configuration, the keys will be installed (copied) on the hosts you want to backup:

$ bb config --deploy host1 Copying configuration to host1; write the password: /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/home/arthur/.ssh/" /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys arthur@host1's password: Number of key(s) added: 1 Now try logging into the machine, with: "ssh 'arthur@host1'" and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added. SUCCESS: Configuration copied successfully on host1! Backup

There are two backup modes: single and bulk.
The most relevant features of the two backup modes are the parallelism and retention of old backups. See the two parameters –parallel and –retention in the documentation.

Single backup

The backup of a single machine consists in taking the files and folders indicated in the command line, and putting them into the cataloging structure indicated above. In other words, copy all file and folders of a machine into a path.

This is an examples:

$ bb backup --computer host1 --destination /mnt/backup --data User Config --type Unix Start backup on host1 SUCCESS: Command rsync -ah --no-links arthur@host1:/home :/etc /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_28 Bulk backup

Above all, bulk mode backups share the same options as single mode, with the difference that they accept a file containing a list of hostnames or ips. In this mode backups will performed in parallel (by default 5 machines at a time). Above all, if you want to run fewer or more machines in parallel, specify the –parallel parameter.

Incremental of the previous backup, for instance:

$ cat /home/arthur/pclist.txt host1 host2 host3 $ bb backup --list /home/arthur/pclist.txt --destination /mnt/backup --data User Config --type Unix ERROR: The port 22 on host2 is closed! ERROR: The port 22 on host3 is closed! Start backup on host1 SUCCESS: Command rsync -ahu --no-links --link-dest=/mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_28 arthur@host1:/home :/etc /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50

There are four backup modes, which you specify with the –mode flag: Full (backup all files) , Mirror (backup all files in mirror mode), Differential (is based on the latest Full backup) and Incremental (is based on the latest backup).
The default mode is Incremental; Full mode is set by default when the flag is not specified.

Listing catalog

The first time you run backup commands, the catalog is created. The catalog is used for future backups and all the restores that are made through Butterfly Backup. To query this catalog use the list command.
First, let’s query the catalog in our example:

$ bb list --catalog /mnt/backup BUTTERFLY BACKUP CATALOG Backup id: aba860b0-9944-11e8-a93f-005056a664e0 Hostname or ip: host1 Timestamp: 2020-09-19 10:28:12 Backup id: dd6de2f2-9a1e-11e8-82b0-005056a664e0 Hostname or ip: host1 Timestamp: 2020-09-19 10:50:59

Press q for exit and select a backup-id:

$ bb list --catalog /mnt/backup --backup-id dd6de2f2-9a1e-11e8-82b0-005056a664e0 Backup id: dd6de2f2-9a1e-11e8-82b0-005056a664e0 Hostname or ip: host1 Type: Incremental Timestamp: 2020-09-19 10:50:59 Start: 2020-09-19 10:50:59 Finish: 2020-09-19 11:43:51 OS: Unix ExitCode: 0 Path: /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50 List: backup.log etc home

To export the catalog list use it with an external tool like cat, include the log flag:

$ bb list --catalog /mnt/backup --log $ cat /mnt/backup/backup.list Restore

The restore process is the exact opposite of the backup process. It takes the files from a specific backup and push it to the destination computer.
This command perform a restore on the same machine of the backup, for instance:

$ bb restore --catalog /mnt/backup --backup-id dd6de2f2-9a1e-11e8-82b0-005056a664e0 --computer host1 --log Want to do restore path /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/etc? To continue [Y/N]? y Want to do restore path /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/home? To continue [Y/N]? y SUCCESS: Command rsync -ahu -vP --log-file=/mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/restore.log /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/etc arthur@host1:/restore_2020_09_19__10_50 SUCCESS: Command rsync -ahu -vP --log-file=/mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/restore.log /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_19__10_50/home/* arthur@host1:/home

Without specifying the “type” flag that indicates the operating system on which the data are being retrieved, Butterfly Backup will select it directly from the catalog via the backup-id.

Archive old backup

Archive operations are used to store backups by saving disk space.

$ bb archive --catalog /mnt/backup/ --days 1 --destination /mnt/archive/ --verbose --log INFO: Check archive this backup f65e5afe-9734-11e8-b0bb-005056a664e0. Folder /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_18__17_50 INFO: Check archive this backup 4f2b5f6e-9939-11e8-9ab6-005056a664e0. Folder /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_15__07_26 SUCCESS: Delete /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_15__07_26 successfully. SUCCESS: Archive /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_15__07_26 successfully. $ ls /mnt/archive host1 $ ls /mnt/archive/host1

After that, look in the catalog and see that the backup was actually archived:

$ bb list --catalog /mnt/backup/ -i 4f2b5f6e-9939-11e8-9ab6-005056a664e0 Backup id: 4f2b5f6e-9939-11e8-9ab6-005056a664e0 Hostname or ip: host1 Type: Incremental Timestamp: 2020-09-15 07:26:46 Start: 2020-09-15 07:26:46 Finish: 2020-09-15 08:43:45 OS: Unix ExitCode: 0 Path: /mnt/backup/host1/2020_09_15__07_26 Archived: True Conclusion

Butterfly Backup was born from a very complex need; this tool provides superpowers to rsync, automates the backup and restore process. In addition, the catalog allows you to have a system similar to a “time machine”.

In conclusion, Butterfly Backup is a lightweight, versatile, simple and scriptable backup tool.

One more thing; Easter egg: bb -Vv

Thank you for reading my post.

Full documentation:

Photo by Manu M on Unsplash.

Web of Trust, Part 2: Tutorial

Monday 19th of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

The previous article looked at how the Web of Trust works in concept, and how the Web of Trust is implemented at Fedora. In this article, you’ll learn how to do it yourself. The power of this system lies in everybody being able to validate the actions of others—if you know how to validate somebody’s work, you’re contributing to the strength of our shared security.

Choosing a project

Remmina is a remote desktop client written in GTK+. It aims to be useful for system administrators and travelers who need to work with lots of remote computers in front of either large monitors or tiny netbooks. In the current age, where many people must work remotely or at least manage remote servers, the security of a program like Remmina is critical. Even if you do not use it yourself, you can contribute to the Web of Trust by checking it for others.

The question is: how do you know that a given version of Remmina is good, and that the original developer—or distribution server—has not been compromised?

For this tutorial, you’ll use Flatpak and the Flathub repository. Flatpak is intentionally well-suited for making verifiable rebuilds, which is one of the tenets of the Web of Trust. It’s easier to work with since it doesn’t require users to download independent development packages. Flatpak also uses techniques to prevent in‑flight tampering, using hashes to validate its read‑only state. As far as the Web of Trust is concerned, Flatpak is the future.

For this guide, you use Remmina, but this guide generally applies to every application you use. It’s also not exclusive to Flatpak, and the general steps also apply to Fedora’s repositories. In fact, if you’re currently reading this article on Debian or Arch, you can still follow the instructions. If you want to follow along using traditional RPM repositories, make sure to check out this article.

Installing and checking

To install Remmina, use the Software Center or run the following from a terminal:

flatpak install flathub org.remmina.Remmina -y

After installation, you’ll find the files in:


Open a terminal here and find the following directories using ls -la:

total 44 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 bin drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 etc drwxr-xr-x. 8 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 lib drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 libexec -rw-r--r--. 2 root root 18644 Aug 25 14:37 manifest.json drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 sbin drwxr-xr-x. 15 root root 4096 Jan 1 1970 share Getting the hashes

In the bin directory you will find the main binaries of the application, and in lib you find all dependencies that Remmina uses. Now calculate a hash for ./bin/remmina:

sha256sum ./bin/*

This will give you a list of numbers: checksums. Copy them to a temporary file, as this is the current version of Remmina that Flathub is distributing. These numbers have something special: only an exact copy of Remmina can give you the same numbers. Any change in the code—no matter how minor—will produce different numbers.

Like Fedora’s Koji and Bodhi build and update services, Flathub has all its build servers in plain view. In the case of Flathub, look at Buildbot to see who is responsible for the official binaries of a package. Here you will find all of the logs, including all the failed builds and their paper trail.

Getting the source

The main Flathub project is hosted on GitHub, where the exact compile instructions (“manifest” in Flatpak terms) are visible for all to see. Open a new terminal in your Home folder. Clone the instructions, and possible submodules, using one command:

git clone --recurse-submodules Developer tools

Start off by installing the Flatpak Builder:

sudo dnf install flatpak-builder

After that, you’ll need to get the right SDK to rebuild Remmina. In the manifest, you’ll find the current SDK is.

"runtime": "org.gnome.Platform", "runtime-version": "3.38", "sdk": "org.gnome.Sdk", "command": "remmina",

This indicates that you need the GNOME SDK, which you can install with:

flatpak install org.gnome.Sdk//3.38

This provides the latest versions of the Free Desktop and GNOME SDK. There are also additional SDK’s for additional options, but those are beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Generating your own hashes

Now that everything is set up, compile your version of Remmina by running:

flatpak-builder build-dir org.remmina.Remmina.json --force-clean

After this, your terminal will print a lot of text, your fans will start spinning, and you’re compiling Remmina. If things do not go so smoothly, refer to the Flatpak Documentation; troubleshooting is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Once complete, you should have the directory ./build-dir/files/, which should contain the same layout as above. Now the moment of truth: it’s time to generate the hashes for the built project:

sha256sum ./bin/*

You should get exactly the same numbers. This proves that the version on Flathub is indeed the version that the Remmina developers and maintainers intended for you to run. This is great, because this shows that Flathub has not been compromised. The web of trust is strong, and you just made it a bit better.

Going deeper

But what about the ./lib/ directory? And what version of Remmina did you actually compile? This is where the Web of Trust starts to branch. First, you can also double-check the hashes of the ./lib/ directory. Repeat the sha256sum command using a different directory.

But what version of Remmina did you compile? Well, that’s in the Manifest. In the text file you’ll find (usually at the bottom) the git repository and branch that you just used. At the time of this writing, that is:

"type": "git", "url": "", "tag": "v1.4.8", "commit": "7ebc497062de66881b71bbe7f54dabfda0129ac2"

Here, you can decide to look at the Remmina code itself:

git clone --recurse-submodules cd ./Remmina git checkout tags/v1.4.8

The last two commands are important, since they ensure that you are looking at the right version of Remmina. Make sure you use the corresponding tag of the Manifest file. you can see everything that you just built.

What if…?

The question on some minds is: what if the hashes don’t match? Quoting a famous novel: “Don’t Panic.” There are multiple legitimate reasons as to why the hashes do not match.

It might be that you are not looking at the same version. If you followed this guide to a T, it should give matching results, but minor errors will cause vastly different results. Repeat the process, and ask for help if you’re unsure if you’re making errors. Perhaps Remmina is in the process of updating.

But if that still doesn’t justify the mismatch in hashes, go to the maintainers of Remmina on Flathub and open an issue. Assume good intentions, but you might be onto something that isn’t totally right.

The most obvious upstream issue is that Remmina does not properly support reproducible builds yet. The code of Remmina needs to be written in such a way that repeating the same action twice, gives the same result. For developers, there is an entire guide on how to do that. If this is the case, there should be an issue on the upstream bug-tracker, and if it is not there, make sure that you create one by explaining your steps and the impact.

If all else fails, and you’ve informed upstream about the discrepancies and they to don’t know what is happening, then it’s time to send an email to the Administrators of Flathub and the developer in question.


At this point, you’ve gone through the entire process of validating a single piece of a bigger picture. Here, you can branch off in different directions:

  • Try another Flatpak application you like or use regularly
  • Try the RPM version of Remmina
  • Do a deep dive into the C code of Remmina
  • Relax for a day, knowing that the Web of Trust is a collective effort

In the grand scheme of things, we can all carry a small part of responsibility in the Web of Trust. By taking free/libre open source software (FLOSS) concepts and applying them in the real world, you can protect yourself and others. Last but not least, by understanding how the Web of Trust works you can see how FLOSS software provides unique protections.

systemd-resolved: introduction to split DNS

Friday 16th of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

Fedora 33 switches the default DNS resolver to systemd-resolved. In simple terms, this means that systemd-resolved will run as a daemon. All programs wanting to translate domain names to network addresses will talk to it. This replaces the current default lookup mechanism where each program individually talks to remote servers and there is no shared cache.

If necessary, systemd-resolved will contact remote DNS servers. systemd-resolved is a “stub resolver”—it doesn’t resolve all names itself (by starting at the root of the DNS hierarchy and going down label by label), but forwards the queries to a remote server.

A single daemon handling name lookups provides significant benefits. The daemon caches answers, which speeds answers for frequently used names. The daemon remembers which servers are non-responsive, while previously each program would have to figure this out on its own after a timeout. Individual programs only talk to the daemon over a local transport and are more isolated from the network. The daemon supports fancy rules which specify which name servers should be used for which domain names—in fact, the rest of this article is about those rules.

Split DNS

Consider the scenario of a machine that is connected to two semi-trusted networks (wifi and ethernet), and also has a VPN connection to your employer. Each of those three connections has its own network interface in the kernel. And there are multiple name servers: one from a DHCP lease from the wifi hotspot, two specified by the VPN and controlled by your employer, plus some additional manually-configured name servers. Routing is the process of deciding which servers to ask for a given domain name. Do not mistake this with the process of deciding where to send network packets, which is called routing too.

The network interface is king in systemd-resolved. systemd-resolved first picks one or more interfaces which are appropriate for a given name, and then queries one of the name servers attached to that interface. This is known as “split DNS”.

There are two flavors of domains attached to a network interface: routing domains and search domains. They both specify that the given domain and any subdomains are appropriate for that interface. Search domains have the additional function that single-label names are suffixed with that search domain before being resolved. For example, a lookup for “server” is treated as a lookup for “” if the search domain is “” In systemd-resolved config files, routing domains are prefixed with the tilde (~) character.

Specific example

Now consider a specific example: your VPN interface tun0 has a search domain and a routing domain If you ask for, it is matched by both domains, so this name would be routed to tun0.

A request for is matched by the second domain and would also go to tun0. If you ask for www, (in other words, if you specify a single-label name without any dots), the difference between routing and search domains comes into play. systemd-resolved attempts to combine the single-label name with the search domain and tries to resolve on tun0.

If you have multiple interfaces with search domains, single-label names are suffixed with all search domains and resolved in parallel. For multi-label names, no suffixing is done; search and routing domains are are used to route the name to the appropriate interface. The longest match wins. When there are multiple matches of the same length on different interfaces, they are resolved in parallel.

A special case is when an interface has a routing domain ~. (a tilde for a routing domain and a dot for the root DNS label). Such an interface always matches any names, but with the shortest possible length. Any interface with a matching search or routing domain has higher priority, but the interface with ~. is used for all other names. Finally, if no routing or search domains matched, the name is routed to all interfaces that have at least one name server attached.

Lookup routing in systemd-resolved Domain routing

This seems fairly complex, partially because of the historic names which are confusing. In actual practice it’s not as complicated as it seems.

To introspect a running system, use the resolvectl domain command. For example:

$ resolvectl domain
Link 4 (wlp4s0): ~.
Link 18 (hub0):
Link 26 (tun0):

You can see that www would resolve as over tun0. Anything ending with resolves over tun0. Everything else would resolve over wlp4s0 (the wireless interface). In particular, a multi-label name like www.foobar would resolve over wlp4s0, and most likely fail because there is no foobar top-level domain (yet).

Server routing

Now that you know which interface or interfaces should be queried, the server or servers to query are easy to determine. Each interface has one or more name servers configured. systemd-resolved will send queries to the first of those. If the server is offline and the request times out or if the server sends a syntactically-invalid answer (which shouldn’t happen with “normal” queries, but often becomes an issue when DNSSEC is enabled), systemd-resolved switches to the next server on the list. It will use that second server as long as it keeps responding. All servers are used in a round-robin rotation.

To introspect a running system, use the resolvectl dns command:

$ resolvectl dns
Link 4 (wlp4s0):
Link 18 (hub0):
Link 26 (tun0):

When combined with the previous listing, you know that for, systemd-resolved will query, and—if it doesn’t respond— For, systemd-resolved will query or the two Google servers and

Differences from nss-dns

Before going further detail, you may ask how this differs from the previous default implementation (nss-dns). With nss-dns there is just one global list of up to three name servers and a global list of search domains (specified as nameserver and search in /etc/resolv.conf).

Each name to query is sent to the first name server. If it doesn’t respond, the same query is sent to the second name server, and so on. systemd-resolved implements split-DNS and remembers which servers are currently considered active.

For single-label names, the query is performed with each of the the search domains suffixed. This is the same with systemd-resolved. For multi-label names, a query for the unsuffixed name is performed first, and if that fails, a query for the name suffixed by each of the search domains in turn is performed. systemd-resolved doesn’t do that last step; it only suffixes single-label names.

A second difference is that with nss-dns, this module is loaded into each process. The process itself communicates with remote servers and implements the full DNS stack internally. With systemd-resolved, the nss-resolve module is loaded into the process, but it only forwards the query to systemd-resolved over a local transport (D-Bus) and doesn’t do any work itself. The systemd-resolved process is heavily sandboxed using systemd service features.

The third difference is that with systemd-resolved all state is dynamic and can be queried and updated using D-Bus calls. This allows very strong integration with other daemons or graphical interfaces.

Configuring systemd-resolved

So far, this article talked about servers and the routing of domains without explaining how to configure them. systemd-resolved has a configuration file (/etc/systemd/resolv.conf) where you specify name servers with DNS= and routing or search domains with Domains= (routing domains with ~, search domains without). This corresponds to the Global: lists in the two listings above.

In this article’s examples, both lists are empty. Most of the time configuration is attached to specific interfaces, and “global” configuration is not very useful. Interfaces come and go and it isn’t terribly smart to contact servers on an interface which is down. As soon as you create a VPN connection, you want to use the servers configured for that connection to resolve names, and as soon as the connection goes down, you want to stop.

How does then systemd-resolved acquire the configuration for each interface? This happens dynamically, with the network management service pushing this configuration over D-Bus into systemd-resolved. The default in Fedora is NetworkManager and it has very good integration with systemd-resolved. Alternatives like systemd’s own systemd-networkd implement similar functionality. But the interface is open and other programs can do the appropriate D-Bus calls.

Alternatively, resolvectl can be used for this (it is just a wrapper around the D-Bus API). Finally, resolvconf provides similar functionality in a form compatible with a tool in Debian with the same name.

Scenario: Local connection more trusted than VPN

The important thing is that in the common scenario, systemd-resolved follows the configuration specified by other tools, in particular NetworkManager. So to understand how systemd-resolved names, you need to see what NetworkManager tells it to do. Normally NM will tell systemd-resolved to use the name servers and search domains received in a DHCP lease on some interface. For example, look at the source of configuration for the two listings shown above:

There are two connections: “Parkinson” wifi and “Brno (BRQ)” VPN. In the first panel DNS:Automatic is enabled, which means that the DNS server received as part of the DHCP lease ( is passed to systemd-resolved. Additionally. and are listed as alternative name servers. This configuration is useful if you want to resolve the names of other machines in the local network, which provides. Unfortunately the hotspot DNS server occasionally gets stuck, and the other two servers provide backup when that happens.

The second panel is similar, but doesn’t provide any special configuration. NetworkManager combines routing domains for a given connection from DHCP, SLAAC RDNSS, and VPN, and finally manual configuration and forward this to systemd-resolved. This is the source of the search domain in the listing above.

There is an important difference between the two interfaces though: in the second panel, “Use this connection only for resources on its network” is checked. This tells NetworkManager to tell systemd-resolved to only use this interface for names under the search domain received as part of the lease (Link 26 (tun0): in the first listing above). In the first panel, this checkbox is unchecked, and NetworkManager tells systemd-resolved to use this interface for all other names (Link 4 (wlp4s0): ~.). This effectively means that the wireless connection is more trusted.

Scenario: VPN more trusted than local network

In a different scenario, a VPN would be more trusted than the local network and the domain routing configuration reversed. If a VPN without “Use this connection only for resources on its network” is active, NetworkManager tells systemd-resolved to attach the default routing domain to this interface. After unchecking the checkbox and restarting the VPN connection:

$ resolvectl domain Global: Link 4 (wlp4s0): Link 18 (hub0): Link 28 (tun0): ~. $ resolvectl dns Global: Link 4 (wlp4s0): Link 18 (hub0): Link 28 (tun0):

Now all domain names are routed to the VPN. The network management daemon controls systemd-resolved and the user controls the network management daemon.

Additional systemd-resolved functionality

As mentioned before, systemd-resolved provides a common name lookup mechanism for all programs running on the machine. Right now the effect is limited: shared resolver and cache and split DNS (the lookup routing logic described above). systemd-resolved provides additional resolution mechanisms beyond the traditional unicast DNS. These are the local resolution protocols MulticastDNS and LLMNR, and an additional remote transport DNS-over-TLS.

Fedora 33 does not enable MulticastDNS and DNS-over-TLS in systemd-resolved. MulticastDNS is implemented by nss-mdns4_minimal and Avahi. Future Fedora releases may enable these as the upstream project improves support.

Implementing this all in a single daemon which has runtime state allows smart behaviour: DNS-over-TLS may be enabled in opportunistic mode, with automatic fallback to classic DNS if the remote server does not support it. Without the daemon which can contain complex logic and runtime state this would be much harder. When enabled, those additional features will apply to all programs on the system.

There is more to systemd-resolved: in particular LLMNR and DNSSEC, which only received brief mention here. A future article will explore those subjects.

Web of Trust, Part 1: Concept

Wednesday 14th of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

Every day we rely on technologies who nobody can fully understand. Since well before the industrial revolution, complex and challenging tasks required an approach that broke out the different parts into smaller scale tasks. Each resulting in specialized knowledge used in some parts of our lives, leaving other parts to trust in skills that others had learned. This shared knowledge approach also applies to software. Even the most avid readers of this magazine, will likely not compile and validate every piece of code they run. This is simply because the world of computers is itself also too big for one person to grasp.

Still, even though it is nearly impossible to understand everything that happens within your PC when you are using it, that does not leave you blind and unprotected. FLOSS software shares trust, giving protection to all users, even if individual users can’t grasp all parts in the system. This multi-part article will discuss how this ‘Web of Trust’ works and how you can get involved.

But first we’ll have to take a step back and discuss the basic concepts, before we can delve into the details and the web. Also, a note before we start, security is not just about viruses and malware. Security also includes your privacy, your economic stability and your technological independence.

One-Way System

By their design, computers can only work and function in the most rudimentary ways of logic: True or false. And or Or. This (boolean logic) is not readily accessible to humans, therefore we must do something special. We write applications in a code that we can (reasonably) comprehend (human readable). Once completed, we turn this human readable code into a code that the computer can comprehend (machine code).

The step of conversion is called compilation and/or building, and it’s a one-way process. Compiled code (machine code) is not really understandable by humans, and it takes special tools to study in detail. You can understand small chunks, but on the whole, an entire application becomes a black box.

This subtle difference shifts power. Power, in this case being the influence of one person over another person. The person who has written the human-readable version of the application and then releases it as compiled code to use by others, knows all about what the code does, while the end user knows a very limited scope. When using (software) in compiled form, it is impossible to know for certain what an application is intended to do, unless the original human readable code can be viewed.

The Nature of Power

Spearheaded by Richard Stallman, this shift of power became a point of concern. This discussion started in the 1980s, for this was the time that computers left the world of academia and research, and entered the world of commerce and consumers. Suddenly, that power became a source of control and exploitation.

One way to combat this imbalance of power, was with the concept of FLOSS software. FLOSS Software is built on 4-Freedoms, which gives you a wide array of other ‘affiliated’ rights and guarantees. In essence, FLOSS software uses copyright-licensing as a form of moral contract, that forces software developers not to leverage the one-way power against their users. The principle way of doing this, is with the the GNU General Public Licenses, which Richard Stallman created and has since been promoting.

One of those guarantees, is that you can see the code that should be running on your device. When you get a device using FLOSS software, then the manufacturer should provide you the code that the device is using, as well as all instructions that you need to compile that code yourself. Then you can replace the code on the device with the version you can compile yourself. Even better, if you compare the version you have with the version on the device, you can see if the device manufacturer tried to cheat you or other customers.

This is where the web of Trust comes back into the picture. The Web of Trust implies that even if the vast majority of people can’t validate the workings of a device, that others can do so on their behalf. Journalists, security analysts and hobbyists, can do the work that others might be unable to do. And if they find something, they have the power to share their findings.

Security by Blind Trust

This is of course, if the application and all components underneath it, are FLOSS. Proprietary software, or even software which is merely Open Source, has compiled versions that nobody can recreate and validate. Thus, you can never truly know if that software is secure. It might have a backdoor, it might sell your personal data, or it might be pushing a closed ecosystem to create a vendor-lock. With closed-source software, your security is as good as the company making the software is trustworthy.

For companies and developers, this actually creates another snare. While you might still care about your users and their security, you’re a liability: If a criminal can get to your official builds or supply-chain, then there is no way for anybody to discover that afterwards. An increasing number of attacks do not target users directly, but instead try to get in, by exploiting the trust the companies/developers have carefully grown.

You should also not underestimate pressure from outside: Governments can ask you to ignore a vulnerability, or they might even demand cooperation. Investment firms or shareholders, may also insist that you create a vendor-lock for future use. The blind trust that you demand of your users, can be used against you.

Security by a Web of Trust

If you are a user, FLOSS software is good because others can warn you when they find suspicious elements. You can use any FLOSS device with minimal economic risk, and there are many FLOSS developers who care for your privacy. Even if the details are beyond you, there are rules in place to facilitate trust.

If you are a tinkerer, FLOSS is good because with a little extra work, you can check the promises of others. You can warn people when something goes wrong, and you can validate the warnings of others. You’re also able to check individual parts in a larger picture. The libraries used by FLOSS applications, are also open for review: It’s “Trust all the way down”.

For companies and developers, FLOSS is also a great reassurance that your trust can’t be easily subverted. If malicious actors wish to attack your users, then any irregularity can quickly be spotted. Last but not least, since you also stand to defend your customers economic well-being and privacy, you can use that as an important selling point to customers who care about their own security.

Fedora’s case

Fedora embraces the concept of FLOSS and it stands strong to defend it. There are comprehensive legal guidelines, and Fedora’s principles are directly referencing the 4-Freedoms: Freedom, Friends, Features, and First

To this end, entire systems have been set up to facilitate this kind of security. Fedora works completely in the open, and any user can check the official servers. Koji is the name of the Fedora Buildsystem, and you can see every application and it’s build logs there. For added security, there is also Bohdi, which orchestrates the deployment of an application. Multiple people must approve it, before the application can become available.

This creates the Web of Trust on which you can rely. Every package in the repository goes through the same process, and at every point somebody can intervene. There are also escalation systems in place to report issues, so that issues can quickly be tackled when they occur. Individual contributors also know that they can be reviewed at every time, which itself is already enough of a precaution to dissuade mischievous thoughts.

You don’t have to trust Fedora (implicitly), you can get something better; trust in users like you.

Recover your files from Btrfs snapshots

Monday 5th of October 2020 08:00:00 AM

As you have seen in a previous article, Btrfs snapshots are a convenient and fast way to make backups. Please note that these articles do not suggest that you avoid backup software or well-tested backup plans. Their goals are to show a great feature of this file system, snapshots, and to inspire curiosity and invite you to explore, experiment and deepen the subject. Read on for more about how to recover your files from Btrfs snapshots.

A subvolume for your project

Let’s assume that you want to save the documents related to a project inside the directory $HOME/Documents/myproject.

As you have seen, a Btrfs subvolume, as well as a snapshot, looks like a normal directory. Why not use a Btrfs subvolume for your project, in order to take advantage of snapshots? To create the subvolume, use this command:

btrfs subvolume create $HOME/Documents/myproject

You can create a hidden directory where to arrange your snapshots:

mkdir $HOME/.snapshots

As you can see, in this case there’s no need to use sudo. However, sudo is still needed to list the subvolumes, and to use the send and receive commands.

Now you can start writing your documents. Each day (or each hour, or even minute) you can take a snapshot just before you start to work:

btrfs subvolume snapshot -r $HOME/Documents/myproject $HOME/.snapshots/myproject-day1

For better security and consistency, and if you need to send the snapshot to an external drive as shown in the previous article, remember that the snapshot must be read only, using the -r flag.

Note that in this case, a snapshot of the /home subvolume will not snapshot the $HOME/Documents/myproject subvolume.

How to recover a file or a directory

In this example let’s assume a classic error: you deleted a file by mistake. You can recover it from the most recent snapshot, or recover an older version of the file from an older snapshot. Do you remember that a snapshot appears like a regular directory? You can simply use the cp command to restore the deleted file:

cp $HOME/.snapshots/myproject-day1/filename.odt $HOME/Documents/myproject

Or restore an entire directory:

cp -r $HOME/.snapshots/myproject-day1/directory $HOME/Documents/myproject

What if you delete the entire $HOME/Documents/myproject directory (actually, the subvolume)? You can recreate the subvolume as seen before, and again, you can simply use the cp command to restore the entire content from the snapshot:

btrfs subvolume create $HOME/Documents/myproject
cp -rT $HOME/.snapshots/myproject-day1 $HOME/Documents/myproject

Or you could restore the subvolume by using the btrfs snapshot command (yes, a snapshot of a snapshot):

btrfs subvolume snapshot $HOME/.snapshots/myproject-day1 $HOME/Documents/myproject How to recover btrfs snapshots from an external drive

You can use the cp command even if the snapshot resides on an external drive. For instance:

cp /run/media/user/mydisk/bk/myproject-day1/filename.odt $HOME/Documents/myproject

You can restore an entire snapshot as well. In this case, since you will use the send and receive commands, you must use sudo. In addition, consider that the restored subvolume will be created as read only. Therefore you need to also set the read only property to false:

sudo btrfs send /run/media/user/mydisk/bk/myproject-day1 | sudo btrfs receive $HOME/Documents/
mv Documents/myproject-day1 Documents/myproject
btrfs property set Documents/myproject ro false

Here’s an extra explanation. The command btrfs subvolume snapshot will create an exact copy of a subvolume in the same device. The destination has to reside in the same btrfs device. You can’t use another device as the destination of the snapshot. In that case you need to take a snapshot and use the send and receive commands.

For more information, refer to some of the online documentation:

man btrfs-subvolume man btrfs-send man btrfs-receive

Use dnsmasq to provide DNS & DHCP services

Wednesday 30th of September 2020 08:00:00 AM

Many tech enthusiasts find the ability to control their host name resolution important. Setting up servers and services usually requires some form of fixed address, and sometimes also requires special forms of resolution such as defining Kerberos or LDAP servers, mail servers, etc. All of this can be achieved with dnsmasq.

dnsmasq is a lightweight and simple program which enables issuing DHCP addresses on your network and registering the hostname & IP address in DNS. This configuration also allows external resolution, so your whole network will be able to speak to itself and find external sites too.

This article covers installing and configuring dnsmasq on either a virtual machine or small physical machine like a Raspberry Pi so it can provide these services in your home network or lab. If you have an existing setup and just need to adjust the settings for your local workstation, read the previous article which covers configuring the dnsmasq plugin in NetworkManager.

Install dnsmasq

First, install the dnsmasq package:

sudo dnf install dnsmasq

Next, enable and start the dnsmasq service:

sudo systemctl enable --now dnsmasq Configure dnsmasq

First, make a backup copy of the dnsmasq.conf file:

sudo cp /etc/dnsmasq.conf /etc/dnsmasq.conf.orig

Next, edit the file and make changes to the following to reflect your network. In this example, is the domain name, is the IP address of the dnsmasq server and is the default gateway.

sudo vi /etc/dnsmasq.conf

Insert the following contents:

domain-needed bogus-priv no-resolv server= server= local=/ listen-address=::1,, expand-hosts dhcp-range=,,24h dhcp-option=option:router, dhcp-authoritative dhcp-leasefile=/var/lib/dnsmasq/dnsmasq.leases

Test the config to check for typos and syntax errors:

$ sudo dnsmasq --test dnsmasq: syntax check OK.

Now edit the hosts file, which can contain both statically- and dynamically-allocated hosts. Static addresses should lie outside the DHCP range you specified earlier. Hosts using DHCP but which need a fixed address should be entered here with an address within the DHCP range.

sudo vi /etc/hosts

The first two lines should be there already. Add the remaining lines to configure the router, the dnsmasq server, and two additional servers.   localhost localhost.localdomain ::1         localhost localhost.localdomain    router   dnsmasq   server1   server2

Restart the dnsmasq service:

sudo systemctl restart dnsmasq

Next add the services to the firewall to allow the clients to connect:

sudo firewall-cmd --add-service={dns,dhcp}
sudo firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent Test name resolution

First, install bind-utils to get the nslookup and dig packages. These allow you to perform both forward and reverse lookups. You could use ping if you’d rather not install extra packages. but these tools are worth installing for the additional troubleshooting functionality they can provide.

sudo dnf install bind-utils

Now test the resolution. First, test the forward (hostname to IP address) resolution:

$ nslookup server1 Server: Address: Name: Address:

Next, test the reverse (IP address to hostname) resolution:

$ nslookup    name =

Finally, test resolving hostnames outside of your network:

$ nslookup Server: Address: Non-authoritative answer: Name: Address: Test DHCP leases

To test DHCP leases, you need to boot a machine which uses DHCP to obtain an IP address. Any Fedora variant will do that by default. Once you have booted the client machine, check that it has an address and that it corresponds to the lease file for dnsmasq.

From the machine running dnsmasq:

$ sudo cat /var/lib/dnsmasq/dnsmasq.leases 1598023942 52:54:00:8e:d5:db server3 01:52:54:00:8e:d5:db 1598019169 52:54:00:9c:5a:bb server4 01:52:54:00:9c:5a:bb Extending functionality

You can assign hosts a fixed IP address via DHCP by adding it to your hosts file with the address you want (within your DHCP range). Do this by adding into the dnsmasq.conf file the following line, which assigns the IP listed to any host that has that name:


Alternatively, you can specify a MAC address which should always be given a fixed IP address:


You can specify a PXE boot server if you need to automate machine builds


This should point to the actual URL of your TFTP server.

If you need to specify SRV or TXT records, for example for LDAP, Kerberos or similar, you can add these:,,389,,88,,88,,88,,749,,464,KRB-SERVER.MYDOMAIN.ORG

There are many other options in dnsmasq. The comments in the original config file describe most of them. For full details, read the man page, either locally or online.

Announcing the release of Fedora 33 Beta

Tuesday 29th of September 2020 02:27:52 PM

The Fedora Project is pleased to announce the immediate availability of Fedora 33 Beta, the next step towards our planned Fedora 33 release at the end of October.

Download the prerelease from our Get Fedora site:

Or, check out one of our popular variants, including KDE Plasma, Xfce, and other desktop environments, as well as images for ARM devices like the Raspberry Pi 2 and 3:

Beta Release Highlights BTRFS by default

All of the desktop variants of Fedora 33 Beta – including Fedora Workstation, Fedora KDE, and others – will use BTRFS as the default filesystem. This is a big shift: we’ve been using ext filesystems since Fedora Core 1. BTRFS offers some really compelling features for users, including transparent compression and copy-on-write. For Fedora 33, we’re only defaulting to the basic features of BTRFS, but we’ll build out the default feature set to include more goodies in future releases.

Fedora Workstation

Fedora 33 Workstation Beta includes GNOME 3.38, the newest release of the GNOME desktop environment. It is full of performance enhancements and improvements. GNOME 3.38 now includes a welcome tour after installation to help users learn about all of the great features this desktop environment offers. It also improves screen recording and multi-monitor support. For a full list of GNOME 3.38 highlights, see the release notes.

Fedora 33 Workstation Beta also provides better thermal management and peak performance on Intel CPUs by including thermald in the default install. And because your desktop should be fun to look at as well as easy to use, Fedora 33 Workstation Beta includes animated backgrounds (a time-of-day slideshow with hue changes) by default.

Fedora IoT

With Fedora 33 Beta, Fedora IoT is now an official Fedora Edition. Fedora IoT is geared toward edge devices on a wide variety of hardware platforms. It is based on ostree technology for safe update and rollback. It includes the Platform AbstRaction for SECurity (PARSEC), an open-source initiative to provide a common API to hardware security and cryptographic services in a platform-agnostic way.

Other updates

Fedora 33 Beta defaults to using nano as the editor. nano is a more approachable editor that is more welcoming to new users. Of course, those who want to use vim, emacs, or any other editor are still able to.

Fedora 33 KDE Beta enables earlyOOM by default, as Fedora Workstation did in the previous release. This helps improve system responsiveness on systems that are running out of memory. 

Fedora 33 Beta includes updated versions of many popular packages like Ruby, Python, and Perl. .NET Core will now be available on Fedora on aarch64, in addition to x86_64. We’re also dropping a few older versions: Python 2.6 and Python 3.4 are retired. The httpd module mod_php is also dropped, as php-fpm is a more performant and more secure PHP module.

Testing needed

Since this is a Beta release, we expect that you may encounter bugs or missing features. To report issues encountered during testing, contact the Fedora QA team via the mailing list or in the #fedora-qa channel on Freenode IRC. As testing progresses, common issues are tracked on the Common F33 Bugs page.

For tips on reporting a bug effectively, read how to file a bug.

What is the Beta Release?

A Beta release is code-complete and bears a very strong resemblance to the final release. If you take the time to download and try out the Beta, you can check and make sure the things that are important to you are working. Every bug you find and report doesn’t just help you, it improves the experience of millions of Fedora users worldwide! Together, we can make Fedora rock-solid. We have a culture of coordinating new features and pushing fixes upstream as much as we can. Your feedback improves not only Fedora, but Linux and free software as a whole.

More information

For more detailed information about what’s new on Fedora 33 Beta release, you can consult the Fedora 33 Change set. It contains more technical information about the new packages and improvements shipped with this release.

Now available: Fedora on Lenovo laptops!

Friday 25th of September 2020 08:00:00 AM

We’ve been teasing this for a while, but today it’s finally true—Fedora Workstation is now available preinstalled on the Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon Gen 8, ThinkPad P53, and ThinkPad P1 Gen 2 laptops. The ThinkPad X1 Carbon is available today for direct consumer purchase from Lenovo’s online store. The Lenovo ThinkPad P1 Gen 2 and ThinkPad P53 will be available next week via the “Contact Us” icon on What’s more, the successor models are in the works for pre-load and online ordering as well!

Lenovo has been a great partner in bringing this to market. Like the Fedora community, they are operating on an “upstream first” model. That’s part of why the only thing you’ll see on the laptop that doesn’t come from an official Fedora repository is a set of PDFs providing documentation and legal notices. Lenovo engineers have been contributing to the Linux kernel, including a patch to enable the “lap mode” sensor, which is already accepted. They have also worked with their vendors to improve Linux support in devices like the fingerprint scanner.

Of course, you already know that open source is about more than just the technology; the community is what makes it great. Lenovo is a member of Fedora and other communities. In addition to participating in the usual Fedora places (like the devel mailing list), they also were a gold-level sponsor of our Nest With Fedora conference. And they have a dedicated Fedora section on their community forum. Mark Pearson, Senior Linux Developer said “doing open source the right way is important to us” at his Nest With Fedora Q&A session.

This will be a global program, but it will take some time to roll out country-by-country. If it doesn’t appear on the website in your country, call the local sales number for your country to place a phone order. I’m excited to have Lenovo offer Fedora Workstation as a supported choice on their laptops. This is a great opportunity to grow our community.

Installing and running Vagrant using qemu-kvm

Monday 21st of September 2020 08:00:00 AM

Vagrant is a brilliant tool, used by DevOps professionals, coders, sysadmins and regular geeks to stand up repeatable infrastructure for development and testing. From their website:

Vagrant is a tool for building and managing virtual machine environments in a single workflow. With an easy-to-use workflow and focus on automation, Vagrant lowers development environment setup time, increases production parity, and makes the “works on my machine” excuse a relic of the past.

If you are already familiar with the basics of Vagrant, the documentation provides a better reference build for all available features and internals.

Vagrant provides easy to configure, reproducible, and portable work environments built on top of industry-standard technology and controlled by a single consistent workflow to help maximize the productivity and flexibility of you and your team.

This guide will walk through the steps necessary to get Vagrant working on a Fedora-based machine.

I started with a minimal install of Fedora Server as this reduces the memory footprint of the host OS, but if you already have a working Fedora machine, either Server or Workstation, then this should still work.

Check the machine supports virtualisation:

$ sudo lscpu | grep Virtualization Virtualization:                  VT-x Virtualization type:             full

Install qemu-kvm:

sudo dnf install qemu-kvm libvirt libguestfs-tools virt-install rsync

Enable and start the libvirt daemon:

sudo systemctl enable --now libvirtd

Install Vagrant:

sudo dnf install vagrant

Install the Vagrant libvirtd plugin:

sudo vagrant plugin install vagrant-libvirt

Add a box

vagrant box add fedora/32-cloud-base --provider=libvirt

Create a minimal Vagrantfile to test

$ mkdir vagrant-test $ cd vagrant-test $ vi Vagrantfile

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| = "fedora/32-cloud-base" end

Note the capitalisation of the file name and in the file itself.

Check the file:

vagrant status

Current machine states: default not created (libvirt) The Libvirt domain is not created. Run 'vagrant up' to create it. Start the box:

vagrant up

Connect to your new machine:

vagrant ssh

That’s it – you now have Vagrant working on your Fedora machine.

To stop the machine, use vagrant halt. This simply halts the machine but leaves the VM and disk in place.
To shut it down and delete it use vagrant destroy. This will remove the whole machine and any changes you’ve made in it.

Next steps

You don’t need to download boxes before issuing the vagrant up command – you can specify the box and the provider in the Vagrantfile directly and Vagrant will download it if it’s not already there. Below is an example which also sets the amount memory and number of CPUs:

# -*- mode: ruby -*- # vi: set ft=ruby : Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| = "fedora/32-cloud-base" config.vm.provider :libvirt do |libvirt| libvirt.cpus = 1 libvirt.memory = 1024 end end

For more information on using Vagrant, creating your own machines and using different boxes, see the official documentation at

There is a huge repository of boxes ready to download and use, and the official location for these is Vagrant Cloud – Some are basic operating systems and some offer complete functionality such as databases, web servers etc.

More in Tux Machines

Top Tips to Protect Your Linux System

Linux-based operating systems have a reputation for their high-security level. That's one of the reasons why the market share for Linux has been growing. The most commonly used operating systems such as Windows are often affected by targeted attacks in the form of ransomware infections, spyware, as well as worms, and malware. As a result, many personal, as well as enterprise users, are turning to Linux-based operating systems such as the Ubuntu-based Linux OS for security purposes. While Linux based systems are not targeted as frequently as other popular operating systems, they are not completely foolproof. There are plenty of risks and vulnerabilities for all types of Linux devices which put your privacy as well as your identity at risk. Read more

Kernel (Linux): Windows Assimilation, Wake-on-LAN, AMD and Intel

  • Tuxera First to Bring Network Bandwidth-Saving SMB Compression Feature to Linux Environments
  • Tuxera First to Bring Network Bandwidth-Saving SMB Compression Feature to Linux Environments

    Tuxera, a world-leader in quality-assured storage management and networking software, announced that the company's SMB server implementation, Fusion File Share by Tuxera, now offers transparent compression to platforms outside of Microsoft Windows. Compression is being rapidly and widely adopted in the storage industry as a feature in memory hardware, file system implementations, and also networking protocols such as Microsoft's server messaging block technology (SMB). The ability to compress files inline during transfer can significantly reduce bandwidth and transfer time. Microsoft released the transparent compression feature to their SMB protocol specification in early 2019. However, Tuxera is the first to implement SMB compression outside of Microsoft Windows, bringing this highly in-demand feature to Linux environments in enterprises around the world.

  • Wake-on-LAN

    With Wake-on-LAN (WoL) it can be slightly easier to manage machines in-house. You can fire up the workstation and start the day’s compile jobs (to catch up with overnight work by the KDE community, say) while drinking an espresso downstairs and doomscrolling. [...] If all the administrative bits are in place, then the simple way to wake up a machine is wake <hostname>. This requires root, since it sends specially-crafted (broadcast) Ethernet packets, which isn’t something that regular users can do.

  • AMD+SUSE Tackling Frequency Invariance For AMD EPYC 7002 CPUs - Phoronix

    Thanks to work by AMD and SUSE engineers, the Linux kernel could soon be seeing frequency invariance support for EPYC 7002 "Rome" processors for yielding greater performance and power efficiency. Over the past year we have seen a lot of Linux kernel work for dealing with frequency invariance but to now that on the x86 side has been focused on Intel Xeon processors. Now through the cooperation of AMD with patches led by SUSE, frequency invariance is being worked on for the EPYC 7002 "Rome" processors.

  • Intel Begins Landing Their Open-Source Vulkan Driver Ray-Tracing Support

    This week marked the release of Vulkan 1.2.162 with the ray-tracing extensions now finalized. As such Intel's stellar open-source team has begun landing their work around Vulkan ray-tracing ahead of the Xe HPG hardware availability that will support this functionality. Back in October I wrote about Intel preparing their open-source driver support for Vulkan ray-tracing ahead of Xe HPG and now with the updated Vulkan spec out there they are able to push more of their work.

today's leftovers

  • Friends of GNOME Update – November 2020 – Getting to know GNOME

    The Seattle GNU/Linux Conference took place online this year and we were there. Executive Director Neil McGovern gave a presentation titled “Patently Obvious” about our legal case with a patent assertion entity and how the settlement impacts all of FOSS. Strategic Initiatives Manager M. de Blanc gave a surprise talk that had nothing to do with GNOME, but discussed the Foundation nonetheless. We also had talks at Linux Application Summit and GNOME.Asia, which you can read more about below.

  • Support UserFreedom by purchasing gifts from the GNU Press Shop

    To celebrate this year's thirty-fifth anniversary of the FSF, we designed and issued an extremely cool undersea-themed 35th Anniversary T-shirt. The initial run sold out faster than a weekend scuba diving trip, but we've reprinted them in a new color scheme worthy of Neptune himself -- lots of these are in stock and ready to send to you. But that's not all! So excited are we on the occasion of FSF's coral anniversary that we also made new socks. Warm your toes with the brand new FSF thirty-fifth anniversary socks -- crew-length socks whose coral, black, and blue color scheme will match your FSF 35th Anniversary Poster. Orders for these limited edition socks will be accepted on a "pre-order" basis until December 9th -- we'll collect customer orders, then print the socks, which I'll then ship to you. Be sure to order socks within the above time frame if you want them, because we won't have a lot of surplus after the orders are filled. [...] Finally, a note about shipping. The current pandemic places a lot of obstacles to buying and selling merchandise at FSF, so your order may be shipped less punctually than before -- but it absolutely will be shipped. This time of year, many customers place orders hoping to have them in hand by December 25. If this is you, and you are in the United States, please place your order before December 4, in order to provide us with the necessary lead time to make sure that your gifts are shipped on time. In any circumstance, it's advisable to place any order as soon as you can; I will endeavor to ship it as promptly as circumstances permit. As always, don't hesitate to email with any questions or concerns about shipping, inventory, payment, suggestions for future items for sale, or anything else -- this email address is the first thing I check every work day, especially at this time of year.

  • The Talospace Project: Firefox 83 on POWER

    LTO-PGO is still working great in Firefox 83, which expands in-browser PDF support, adds additional features to Picture-in-Picture (which is still one of my favourite tools in Firefox) and some miscellany developer changes. The exact same process, configs and patches to build a fully link-time and profile-guided optimized build work that was used in Firefox 82.

  • Presenting Cockpit Wicked | YaST

    If you are into systems management, you most likely have heard about Cockpit at some point. In a nutshell, it offers a good looking web-based interface to perform system tasks like inspecting the logs, applying system updates, configuring the network, managing services, and so on. If you want to give it a try, you can install Cockpit in openSUSE Tumbleweed just by typing zypper in cockpit. [...] Cockpit already features a nice module to configure the network so you might be wondering why not extending the original instead of creating a new one. The module shipped with Cockpit is specific to NetworkManager and adapting it to a different backend can be hard. In our case, we are trying to build something that could be adapted in the future to support more backends, but we are not sure how realistic this idea is.

Programming/Development Leftovers

  • PHP 8.0 Ready To Ship With Many New Features, Even Better Performance - Phoronix

    PHP 8.0 is scheduled for release tomorrow on the US Thanksgiving day. PHP 8.0 brings with it many new language features on top of the opt-in JIT compiler support. Here is a look at some of the PHP 8.0 changes along with a quick look at the near final performance of PHP 8.0 on an AMD EPYC Linux server. PHP 8.0 is a very worthy successor to last year's PHP 7.4. Besides the JIT compiler there is a ton of work incorporated into this big version bump. Among the PHP 8.0 highlights are: - PHP8 introduces the much anticipated Just In Time (JIT) compiler for further enhancing the speed of PHP scripts. More details on PHP's JIT compiler via this Wiki page.

  • Going from Android LinearLayout to CSS flexbox

    Are you an Android developer looking to learn web development? I find it easier to learn a new technology stack by comparing it to a stack I’m already familiar with. Android developers can layout views using the simple yet flexible LinearLayout class. The web platform has similar tools to layout elements using CSS, and some concepts are shared. Here’s some tips to learn web development using your Android knowledge.

  • Software Diagrams Aren’t Always Correct and That’s OK

    Concretely, software is just bits in electronic storage that control and/or are manipulated by processors. Abstractions are the building blocks that enable humans to design and build complex software systems out of bits. Abstractions are products of out minds—they allow us to assign meaning to clusters (some large, some small) of bits. They allow us to build software systems without thinking about billions of bits or how processors work. We manifest some useful and generally simple abstractions (instructions, statements, functions, classes, modules, etc.) as “code” using other abstractions we call “languages.” Languages give us a common vocabulary for us to communicate about those abstract building blocks and to produce the corresponding bits. There are many useful tools that can and should be created to help us understand the code-level operation of a system. But most systems we build today are too complex to be fully understood at the level of code. In designing them we must use higher-level abstractions to conceptualize, compose, and organize code. Abstract machines, frameworks, patterns, roles, stereotypes, heuristics, constraints, etc. are examples of such higher-level abstractions. The languages we commonly use provide few, if any, mechanisms for directly identifying such higher-level abstractions. These abstractions may manifest as naming or other coding conventions but recognizing them as such depends upon a pre-existing shared understanding between the writer and readers of the code.

  • How to Convert Integer into String in Python | Linuxize

    Python has several built-in data types. Sometimes, when writing Python code, you might need to convert one data type to another. For example, concatenate a string and integer, first, you’ll need to convert the integer into a string.

  • How To Install PyCharm on Debian 10

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install PyCharm on Debian 10. For those of you who didn’t know, PyCharm is an intelligent and fully-featured IDE for Python developed by JetBrains. It also provides support for Javascript, Typescript, and CSS, etc. You can also extend PyCharm features by using plugins. By using PyCharm plugins you can also get support for frameworks like Django, Flask. We can also use PyCharm for other programming languages like HTML, SQL, Javascript, CSS, and more. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step by step installation of PyCharm on a Debian 10 (Buster).

  • This Week in Rust 366