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October 2021

Video/Audio: Makulu Shift Ubuntu Variant, Writing Email Regex Nearly Impossible, GNU World Order

Filed under
GNU
Linux

The risk of a Cloud shutdown

Filed under
Server

I often see people and companies moving their workloads to the cloud. Speaking with them, they explain that the cloud is cheaper, more flexible, and more reliable than their current infrastructure. To further increase investment return, they often target a specific (single) cloud to reduce management costs and complexity.

By itself, this trend seems a very reasonable one. The risk is that, sometimes, people do not consider the less immediate risks around this move. There are many of those risks, and if there is an appetite for it, I’ll be talking further about the other dangers, but now I would like to focus on a specific one: the risk of a shutdown.

I define the “risk of a Cloud shutdown” as the potential risk that all resources of a single customer go offline. Major events such as data center going down or a global BGP failure can create downtime, but we are not talking about those since those would affect much more than a single customer.

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today's howtos

Filed under
HowTos
  • Install Kubecost to Help Optimise Kubernetes Applications

    Our homelab runs on dedicated hardware, therefore there is no Cloud provider cost involved in order to run it.

    The cost of electricity is all there is to it. The average homelab power consumption is approximatelly 80W.

    Monthly, this works out as follows: (((80W * 24h) / 1000) * £0.16/kWh * 365days) / 12months = £9.34 (~13$).

  • Install mod_ssl on Almalinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 for httpd Apache webserver

    Apache Module mod_ssl is available to install for getting SSL support in our HTTP server. Here we let you know how to enable mod_ssl & mod_http2 for Apache webserver on Almalinux or Rocky Linux 8 (RHEL based).

    To get SSL v3 and TLS v1.x support on Apache, this article is here that helps in generating the required SSL certificate including the associated private key.

  • What is the Difference Between Printf and Echo in Bash?

    We may want to organize the result of an Ubuntu operation in a specific way. Perhaps we should avoid bloated results and present information in a concise style. The commands echo and printf are also constructed. Printf provides for the creation of a formatting string and offers a non-zero quit status when it fails. Whereas echo normally leaves with a 0 status and typically outputs inputs headed by the end of line character upon this standard result. The “printf” gives you more options for the output format than the “echo”. Throughout this brief lesson, we will look at how to style the results of the terminal using the echo and printf instructions on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system.

  • How to Use Sed to Add a New Line at the End of Each Line

    The sed stands for stream editor that is used for basic editing operations on a text that comes from a file or on an input that is directly passed to sed from another command. Like its inputting criteria, sed can process an input file and give output to another program (as it takes input from other programs directly). It can be used to track the same word that is used in a document in different ways and the users can set them for better understanding. As the foundation of sed is based on a text editor but it can be used to write complex scripts also.

  • Analyze Disk Usage Using GDU Command Line Tool

    This article will cover a guide on using the “gdu” command line utility in Linux. This tool can be used to analyze free as well used space on any storage device connected to your Linux system. Written in Go programming language, gdu claims to be fast at analyzing solid state drives. According to a benchmark provided on its GitHub repository, it can analyze an entire disk faster than other similar tools.

  • Bash Print all Environment Variables

    Environment variables are a collection of dynamic specified values kept inside the machine that has been utilized by programs running in terminals or subshells in Ubuntu and Linux platforms. The environment variable, in basic terms, is an attribute with a title and a value. Environment variables involve changing the way a system functions as well as the behavior of the device’s programs. The environment variable can hold data such as the regular word processor or search engine, the route to executable documents, the machine locale, and keypad layout preferences, among other things.

  • Bash Split String into Array

    You may find yourself in many situations where you have to split string values into arrays or other data structures while working on a bash script in a Linux system. Here, you have to clear that bash doesn’t provide us with the built-in split function to split any string. But there is always an alternative to such problems. Hence, we will be using the delimiters to convert or split some strings into an array. Let’s start looking at some examples within Ubuntu 20.04. Open the shell terminal first using the “Ctrl+Alt+T” on the desktop.

  • How to install VLC Player on Almalinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Linux Shout

    VLC Media Player doesn’t need any introduction it has been around for a very long time to run media files on almost all operating systems. Here we learn how to install a VLC media player on AlmaLinux or Rocky Linux 8 (RHEL based Linux).

    VLC is available for Linux, Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS. It is an open-source application and can play files of all important audio and video formats. A double click is enough, alternatively you can load files into the VLC interface using drag & drop or tap a video DVD using the menu bar command.

    The users can easily switch ON Subtitles and lyrics, if available along with the preferred language for films in VLC. The VLC media player can also be used as a streaming client for various Internet streams – such as YouTube videos and the like. With a little bit of skill, you can also use this function to download media such as the aforementioned YouTube videos from the network and save them locally. If the format does not yet fit, you can convert it with the VLC media player and extract the audio track from videos in order to save them as an MP3 file, for example.

  • How to install Apache on Almalinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Linux Shout

    Apache is the most widely used and popular open-source web server on the Internet. It can be flexibly configured and expanded using a large number of modules. Here we learn how to install Apache webserver on AlmaLinux or Rocky Linux 8 using the command line.

    Most of the time we use Apache web server in combination with MySQL and PHP or Perl or Python to create a LAMP server ( Linux, Apache, MySQL, and P such as PHP, Perl, or Python) for running various CMS and other web applications.

  • How to Use Bash Set Builtin

    The Linux system contains many options to be set in it by a user. One of the very well-known and useful groups of commands is “Set builtin”. The Set Built-in has many flags to set any environment variables in Bash with its simple commands. Today, we will discuss and implement some examples to see different Set Built-in commands in Ubuntu 20.04 Linux operating system. Start by logging in from your system first. Open your shell terminal using the “Ctrl+Alt+T” shortcut key on the desktop. To get information regarding the “Set Built-in” command, use the “help” command along with the “set” keyword in your terminal as shown.

  • How to Setup Samba Server in Ubuntu 20.04 - ByteXD

    Samba is a utility present in Linux that allows sharing of folders and printers across different operating systems over a network. It means you can access the folders present in Linux in one system from another system having Windows using Samba.

    In this tutorial you will learn about the Samba server in detail; how to install and configure the Samba server in Ubuntu Linux, along with different cases of its use and different issues that might arise.

  • How to Create a Menu Bash Script

    In Bash scripts, there seem to be a variety of ways to accept data from the user. Allowing participants to enter input, on the other hand, might cause some issues. The major difficulty is data integrity, which necessitates taking into consideration all potential inputs. Creating a multiple-choice panel for the Bash code is a simple way around all of this. To use this approach, you may construct a simple, predefined set of choices from which the user can select. In this brief tutorial, we’ll look at how to make a basic numerous option menu within Bash scripts to use a select structure and case clauses via the Ubuntu 20.04 system terminal.

  • How to Use Modulus in Bash?

    In mathematics, the modulo operator is widely known to determine the remainder of two values upon division. This mathematical operator can also be used in the bash script. Therefore, we will see how a modulo operator can be used in bash with different ways to get the remainder. Let’s start by logging in from the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Try “Ctrl+Alt+T” to launch the shell terminal on the Ubuntu desktop. Let’s have a few examples.

  • How do I Exit a Bash Script?

    You may have encountered many situations when you have to quit your bash script upon some inconvenience. There are many methods to quit the bash script, i.e., quit while writing a bash script, while execution, or at run time. One of the many known methods to exit a bash script while writing is the simple shortcut key, i.e., “Ctrl+X”. While at run time, you can exit the code using “Ctrl+Z”. This guide will show how the batch script can be quitted using the different exit clauses while executing. Let’s get started by logging in from the Ubuntu 20.04 system first and opening the shell using “Ctrl+Alt+T”.

  • How To Install KDE Plasma on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install KDE Plasma on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, KDE Plasma is one of the most popular Desktop Environments available for Linux Desktop users. KDE dedicate based on creating a free and user-friendly computer experience by offering advanced graphical desktop and a wide variety of applications for entertainment, learning, communication e.t.c

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the KDE Plasma Desktop Environment on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How To Install IonCube Loader on Ubuntu 20.04 - ByteXD

    IonCube is a code encryption tool, created in 2003. It was introduced to protect codes written in PHP language so that an unlicensed user could not view, change or run the file. It secures the file through the encryption/decryption method.

Linux Kernel 5.15 Released with New NTFS File System, In-Kernel SMB Server, and More

Filed under
Linux
News

Highlights of Linux 5.15 include a brand new NTFS file system implementation from Parangon Software that’s fully functional and supports all NTFS versions up to 3.1, an in-kernel SMB3 server called ksmbd, Btrfs now supports fs-verity file integrity assurance and ID-mapped mounts, as well as DAMON (Data Access MONitor) for monitoring the memory access pattern of user-space processes.

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today's leftovers

Filed under
Misc
  • Asus Chromebook CX9 Review: Too much of a good thing

    I even used Blender to render a heavy 3D scene that would have brought a lesser laptop to its knees, and it still managed to hold its ground—albeit some sluggishness. Granted, you probably shouldn’t buy this Chromebook for serious 3D work, but the fact I’m able to render a scene with it truly shows how far we’ve come with Chrome OS. You won’t find your usual Adobe apps here—although the company recently launched Photoshop and Illustrator for the web—and it’s a bit of a hassle to install Linux apps without a dedicated app store. Google, it’s about time you made an official app store for Linux.

  • Theming My Login Screen For Maximum Gains (sddm) - Invidious

    I spent several hours in the last few days creating an sddm theme that includes nine different background images based on nine different terminal colorschemes. I also packaged my sddm theme for the Arch User Repository (AUR) and for the DTOS core repository.

  • Anonymity No More? Age Checks Come to the Web. - The New York Times

    Richard Errington clicked to stream a science-fiction film from his home in Britain last month when YouTube carded him.

    The site said Mr. Errington, who is over 50, needed to prove he was old enough to watch “Space Is the Place,” a 1974 movie starring the jazz musician Sun Ra. He had three options: Enter his credit card information, upload a photo identification like a passport or skip the video.

Open Hardware/Modding: Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and More

Filed under
Hardware

  • Focus Flower blasts your face with liquid motivation

    Everyone needs a little kick in the pants to stay motivated every now and then. With so many of us working from home, where bosses aren’t looking over our shoulders, that is truer now than ever before. Hardware Unknown’s Focus Flower gives that kick in the pants in the form of liquid motivation blasting your face.

    Focus Flower’s operation is as simple as possible. When it’s time to start a new task, push the big red “easy” button. A bigger will begin its countdown, giving you a set amount of time to complete your task. Once you do, push the button again for a congratulatory auditory back pat. But if you don’t complete the task in time, that innocuous potted plate on your desk will shoot a jet of water at you. It’s good ol’ fashioned negative reinforcement.

  • Raspberry Pi Reads What It Sees, Delights Children | Hackaday

    [Geyes30]’s Raspberry Pi project does one thing: it finds arbitrary text in the camera’s view and reads it out loud. Does it do so flawlessly? Not really. Was it at least effortless to put together? Also no, but it does wonderfully illustrate the process of gluing together different bits of functionality to make something new. Also, [geyes30]’s kids find it fascinating, and that’s a win all on its own.

    The device is made from a Raspberry Pi and camera and works by sending a still image from the camera to an optical character recognition (OCR) program, which converts any visible text in the image to its ASCII representation. The recognized text is then piped to the espeak engine and spoken aloud. Getting all the tools to play nicely took a bit of work, but [geyes30] documented everything so well that even a novice should be able to get the project up and running in an afternoon.

  • Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W vs Raspberry Pi Zero W: What Upgrades Does It Bring?

    Having launched the Raspberry Pi Zero W in 2017 as an upgrade to 2015’s Raspberry Pi Zero, Raspberry Pi Foundation has now unveiled its latest offering, the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W. In this article, we will compare the specifications of the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W against its predecessor, the Pi Zero W. If that’s something you are interested in, read on to learn the differences between Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W vs Raspberry Pi Zero W.

  • Handwriting Robots Are Sending Snail Mail | Hackaday

    3D printers and laser cutters helped make adapters and homing teeth. A Raspberry Pi replaced the old laptops and they scaled up to a few machines.

  • The Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W is ideal for DIY projects

    The Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W is powerful for a computer the size of a matchbox, but get a Pi 4 or Pi 400 if you want a better desktop experience

  • KrakenSDR phase-coherent software-defined radio - Geeky Gadgets

    KrakenRF has launched a new project via the Crowd Supply website for their new KrakenSDR phase-coherent software-defined radio with five RTL-SDRs.

  • First Impressions with the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W

    It's been several years since I first reviewed the original Raspberry Pi Zero W, so what's changed and what's it good for?

Free/Libre Software Leftovers

Filed under
Software
  • No girl software freedom here | Stop at Zona-M

    As a twenty year old single male I think it’s very hard to find a girl who’s actually interested in free software. I’ve had girls jokingly ask to “Netflix and chill” but when I tell her that I don’t use Netflix since Netflix requires proprietary software to stream content, they stop talking to me.

  • Open-source e-commerce: The next wave of value for the enterprise

    Customers of a large advanced-electronics manufacturing business were having trouble finding and ordering products on the company’s website. The solution? Customer service told them to email their orders to their sales reps, who would then enter them into the site themselves. The email orders were inevitably unclear, leading sales reps to spend endless hours searching for products, clarifying the orders, and inputting the wrong information. Not only that, but top sales reps were spending their time doing basic fulfillment, not selling.

  • Materialise & Proponent aim to make 3D printing more accessible for aerospace MROs

    Materialise has partnered with aircraft part distributor Proponent to explore how 3D printing could help aerospace OEMs.

  • Pocket satellites made in Greece

    Libre Space Foundation, which has a lab in the center of Athens, designs and develops space technology with the use of open software

    [...]

    “We went numb,” Manthos Papamatthaiou, the president of the Libre Space Foundation (LSF), tells Kathimerini when he remembers the great ball of fire they saw on their screens. “Even if you are aware that it is a possibility, we had put a lot of work into it and everything was in place to receive signals from orbit. According to our calculations, the satellites would have made their first pass of over Greece in the afternoon of the same day.”

    [...]

    He also notes a parallel trend that is being seen internationally in the aerospace sector, which their team represents. Their organization supports the free sharing of information through open source code and software that are exchanged on the internet at no cost, free of intellectual property rights. “We believe that everything should be done with the purpose of spreading knowledge and the peaceful use of space, to broaden humanity’s horizons,” concludes Papamatthaiou.

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Source Software

    There are both advantages and disadvantages of open source software. Price is not the only factor, although it may seem quite an important one at first glance. In this article we will look at both the advantages and the disadvantages of open source software.

    [...]

    Ultimately, we all have to make our own decisions about open source software. There has been resistance in the past but these days even major enterprises like Amazon have converted to open source. This is the direction that the industry is going and maybe turning your back on open source is like the fabled King Canute standing on the beach commanding the tide not to come in.

  • Status of Zephyr and NuttX RTOS support for ESP32 - CNX Software

    Espressif has recently announced that both Zephyr and NuttX open-source real-time operating systems had gotten official support for the ESP32 series of WiSoCs.

    It’s been a long time in the making, and when I first tried the community developer port of Zephyr OS on ESP32 in 2018 it did not work well at all, and I could not even make the blink LED sample work on Wemos Lolin32 board, and the WiFi sample would not even build. But time has passed, Espressif Systems started to officially work on Zephyr in 2020, and now I/Os, WiFi, and some other features work on Zephyr and NuttX RTOSes.

  • LibreOffice project and community recap: October 2021
  • GridGain Unveils Conference Schedule for 2021 Ignite Summit: Cloud Edition

    GridGain® Systems, provider of enterprise-grade in-memory computing solutions powered by the Apache® Ignite® distributed database, today published the conference schedule for the 2021 Ignite Summit: Cloud Edition, a free virtual event for the global Apache Ignite community, taking place November 16, 2021. Featuring expert speakers from Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM and GridGain, the 2021 conference is intended for developers, architects and members of the Apache Ignite community who use or are interested in using Apache Ignite to tackle speed and scale challenges in cloud environments. Registration for the virtual event is open to anyone, anywhere in the world.

Programming and Standards/Consortia

Filed under
Development
  • Lamboozling Attackers: A New Generation of Deception: Software engineering teams can exploit attackers' human nature by building deception environments.

    Deception is a powerful resilience tactic that provides observability into attack operations, deflects impact from production systems, and advises resilient system design. A lucid understanding of the goals, constraints, and design tradeoffs of deception systems could give leaders and engineers in software development, architecture, and operations a new tactic for building more resilient systems—and for bamboozling attackers.

    Unfortunately, innovation in deception has languished for nearly a decade because of its exclusive ownership by information security specialists. Mimicry of individual system components remains the status-quo deception mechanism despite growing stale and unconvincing to attackers, who thrive on interconnections between components and expect to encounter systems. Consequently, attackers remain unchallenged and undeterred.

    This wasted potential motivated our design of a new generation of deception systems, called deception environments. These are isolated replica environments containing complete, active systems that exist to attract, mislead, and observe attackers. By harnessing modern infrastructure and systems design expertise, software engineering teams can use deception tactics that are largely inaccessible to security specialists. To help software engineers and architects evaluate deception systems through the lens of systems design, we developed a set of design principles summarized as a pragmatic framework. This framework, called the FIC trilemma, captures the most important dimensions of designing deception systems: fidelity, isolation, and cost.

  • Why Embedded Software Development is Harder

    Developers sometimes distinguish "embedded" as a special kind of software development. Maybe different than categories like "web" or "apps". Is it really? In the end, writing software looks very much the same.

    There are aspects which have significant effect on the development process but it makes sense to differentiate six aspects.

  • What Is the Matrix Protocol and How Does It Work?

    Most of the platforms we use to communicate with each other online are tied to a single provider. But there's no technical reason for things to be this way. There are ways to chat online that offer a greater degree of privacy and freedom. Matrix is one of those ways.

    [...]

    The Matrix.org Foundation describes Matrix not as a protocol but as a decentralized conversation store. There is no single point of failure, such as a centralized server, in Matrix. When you communicate with someone, the data is shared among all the servers, with users participating in the conversation. If your server goes down, the conversation can still go on elsewhere until your server goes back up.

    This is an effort to democratize communication. Each server has equal ownership over conversations and self-sovereignty over user data. These servers can be self-hosted at home or on a virtual private server or hosted by an organization, company, or community. This contrasts with all major commercial platforms, such as Discord, where the company owns the servers that everyone connects to and, as a result, all of the data. And if those servers go down, no one can communicate.

    That's not where the contrasts stop. While someone on Twitter can't send a direct message to someone on Facebook, Matrix is interoperable by design. You can set up your Skype account, your Discord account, and your Slack account so that no matter where someone sends you a message, you see them in your Matrix client, and you can respond to any of them from one place. Matrix refers to this functionality as bridging.

  • The QUIC API OpenSSL Will Not Provide

    In a world that is now gradually adopting HTTP/3 (which, as you know, is implemented over QUIC), the problem with the missing API for QUIC is still a key problem.

    There are a number of existing QUIC library implementation now since a few years back, and they are slowly maturing. The QUIC protocol became RFC 9000 and friends, but the most popular TLS libraries still don’t provide the necessary APIs to make QUIC libraries possible to use them.

Security and Proprietary Software Leftovers

Filed under
Security

Systemd-Free antiX 21 Linux Distro Released, Based on Debian GNU/Linux 11 “Bullseye”

Filed under
Linux
News
Debian

antiX 21 arrives more than five months after antiX 19.4 and brings a fresh new base from the repositories of the latest and greatest Debian GNU/Linux 11 “Bullseye” operating system series.

Of course, in the tradition of the antiX and MX Linux distributions, the new release doesn’t ship with the systemd init system, nor the libsystemd0 library that provides interfaces to various systemd components.

Read more

More in Tux Machines

LXer: Laptop Dual Boot Project Part 2

I know some of you are wondering why go through all of this when I could just install a Linux distro along side of windows and be done with it? One reason was I had to pay it off. A financed $550 laptop takes a little while to pay off. I didn't want to change the machine any while I owed money on it. And the idea of messing with a bone stock laptop using Linux sounded fun. The good thing now is that I have paid it off so it's all mine to do whatever I want with. So, for me it came down to PCLOS, Mint, SUSE or Ubuntu to install to my laptop. I tried them all 'live' from USB drives and a couple of them using VirtualBox. They are all good distros and there are many articles on why one or the other is good or better for you but for me, it came down to PCLinuxOS or Mint. Having come from Windows originally I am most comfortable with a "Windows like" environment. I think both PCLOS and Mint are two versions of that I like best. I like Mint mire but what has drawn me to PCLOS is that it is the only Linux I have tried in that the backlight on my keyboard works. It may sound dumb but it makes it easier for me being able to see the keys no matter the lighting situation I'm in. I tried to install PCLinuxOS onto my laptop and I got a "can't call method on first_usable_sector unblessed reference" error at the very beginning of the install process. I couldn't get around it and aborted the install. Time to do some research. Come to find out I have a AHCI-RAID problem. I got into the BIOS and changed the SATA configuration from RAID to AHCI but in rebooting, it wouldn't boot. So I went back into my BIOS and wrote down the configuration in the SATA settings. It says I am running the "Intel RST Premium with Intel Optane System Acceleration". I have been looking that up but haven't found much...much I understand that is. More Googling is required. I got back into the boot menu and changed the SATA config back to Intel's RAID setting and it re-booted just fine. It seems that for the moment I am able to run Linux from USB 'live' and under VirtualBox but I am unable to install it to the HD. For those who don't know the big difference AHCI and Raid , it is how they store the data to the hard drive. I'll use a sink with water filling it for the metaphor. RAID 1 offers redundancy through mirroring, i.e., data is written identically to two drives. Think of two sinks with the same water in them. RAID 0 offers no redundancy and instead uses striping, i.e., data is split across all the drives. think of two sinks with the water split between them. Half of the data goes into one drive and the other half into another drive. This means RAID 0 offers no fault tolerance; if the drives fails, the RAID unit fails. Read more

Help the FSF tech team maintain email services in freedom

The Free Software Foundation's (FSF) tech team is a small but dedicated team of three staff. With your support, and with the help of volunteers and interns, we run hundreds of services on a few dozen physical machines in four data centers. We are very excited about some of the initiatives we are working on, like deploying our upcoming forge site and other new systems, expanding our physical server deployments, and a further refresh of fsf.org. In parallel, the tech team is always working to better maintain, understand, and document our existing systems. Mastering those keeps vital systems running smoothly and lays the groundwork for future improvements. Email is a key service we provide. Besides it being one of the FSF campaigns and licensing teams' most important ways of communicating, we also support thousands of mailing lists for other free software projects, which send millions of emails per year. Free software is extremely capable in all aspects of email, and there continue to be innovative advancements in free software email programs that we are excited to explore and adopt. Read more

Android Leftovers

What Is OpenBSD? Everything You Need to Know

OpenBSD is no doubt one of the most secure operating systems on the internet. Here's what you need to know about it. Linux fans love to tout their system's security, but for one group of BSD developers, it doesn't go far enough. One version of BSD, OpenBSD, claims to be one of the most secure operating systems around. Does it live up to the hype? Let's find out. Read more