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HowTos

today's howtos

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  • How to install Raspberry Pi OS with desktop on Raspberry Pi 4

    The Raspberry Pi 4 is seriously impressive, with some considerable hardware improvements over the Pi 3. As a result, many are picking it up to use as a Linux computer. One of the best operating systems to run on the Pi 4 is Rasberry Pi OS. Here’s how to get it set up.

  • How To Install Froxlor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Froxlor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Froxlor is an open-source lightweight server management control panel to effectively manage web hosting, domain names, FTP accounts, email accounts, support tickets, and customers that are associated with them and are licensed under GPL.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Froxlor server management panel on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to Enable / Configure Multi-Touch Gestures in Ubuntu 20.04 & Higher | UbuntuHandbook

    This simple tutorial shows how to enable & configure the multi-touch gestures in Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 21.04, Ubuntu 21.10 using touchegg.

    For those running Ubuntu on laptop or PC with external touchpad, multi-finger gestures enable users with more actions to control your system.

    Since Ubuntu does not offer a utility to configure multi-touch functions, touchegg is a free open-source tool to enable this feature for you. And it supports for both global gestures or gestures for Firefox, Chromium, Google Chrome only.

  • How To Get Public IP From Command Line

    In this tutorial we’ll learn how to get Public IP address from Terminal or Command Line.

    This will be useful to find public IP address of a cloud instance like EC2 instance, Lightsail instance, or DigitalOcean Droplets.

    We can also use this method to find Public IP of a VPS or any bare metal server that have Public IP Address.

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  • Understanding the sources.list File in Ubuntu

    Whenever you add a new repository on Ubuntu, the system adds a record to the sources.list file.

    What other information related to repositories does this file contain? And is it important for the operating system to store this data? You'll find out in this post.

    [...]

    The second field is reserved for the repository URL. This URL points to the server that stores all the package files along with the database.

    The third field denotes the release code name for the version of your Ubuntu installation. You might find xenial, bionic, and focal in the case of Ubuntu, and buster or sid if you're using Debian.

    The fourth entry contains information about the type of repository. On Ubuntu, the fourth field would contain any of these four repository components: main, restricted, universal, and multiverse.

  • How To Disable NetworkManager on AlmaLinux 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install NetworkManager on AlmaLinux 8. For those of you who didn’t know, NetworkManager is the default tool for configuring and managing the network services on AlmaLinux 8 or CentOS 8, there are situations where it may be necessary to permanently disable NetworkManager, and use alternative methods to configure and manage the network. Remember good practice always demands that NetworkManager service is up and running for automatic detection of networks and managing interface settings.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step turn-off of the NetworkManager on an AlmaLinux 8. You can follow the same instructions for Rocky Linux.

  • GNU Linux Debian – encrypt decrypt partition harddisk encryption
  • The Ultimate Alternatives To Blender.

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  • How To Install Cloudron on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Cloudron on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Cloudron is a complete solution for running apps on your server and keeping them up-to-date and secure. Cloudron comes with the App store from where you can install various applications with just one click without the need of going through Database setup and other processes, for example, WordPress, Joomla, and more.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Cloudron on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • Sean Whitton: transient-caps-lock

    If you’re writing a lot of Common Lisp and you want to follow the convention of using all uppercase to refer to symbols in docstrings, comments etc., you really need something better than the shift key. Similarly if you’re writing C and you have VARIOUS_LONG_ENUMS.

    The traditional way is a caps lock key. But that means giving up a whole keyboard key, all of the time, just for block capitalisation, which one hardly uses outside of programming. So a better alternative is to come up with some Emacs thing to get block capitalisation, as Emacs key binding is much more flexible than system keyboard layouts, and can let us get block capitalisation without giving up a whole key.

  • seconds since epoch to ISO timestamp
  • Utilizing SaltStack to configure SELinux - Linux Concept

    The second orchestration and automation framework we’ll consider is SaltStack, which has commercial backing by the SaltStack company. SaltStack uses a declarative language similar to Ansible and is also written in Python. In this chapter, we will use the open source SaltStack framework, but an enterprise version of SaltStack is available as well, which adds more features on top of the open source one.

  • How to create a Systemd service unit file in Linux - Linux Shout

    A service is a program that runs automatically when the computer starts and waits in the background to do its job. A service usually does not have a graphical user interface and works without user interaction. The best-known services are certain web, mail, or database servers, for example, apache, MySQL, and many others. But also the hardware detection or the automatic integration (mounting) of USB sticks, for example, is done by services.

    In principle, there are two types of services: internal, for tasks that are relevant or hardware-related when the system is started, and other is services that are subsequently installed by the user, which usually include all server services. In technical terms or computer jargon, services are also traditionally referred to as daemons. The letter ‘d’ therefore often used as the last letter in the program to denote some services, such as when the server component sshd of SSH or mysqld of MySQL.

    Whereas Systemd is a system and session manager (init system) that is responsible for managing all services running on the system over the entire operating time of the computer, from the start-up process to shutdown. Processes are always started in parallel (as far as possible) to keep the boot process as short as possible. Now, when we create a configuration file that ends with .service and holds code about a process controlled and supervised by Systemd; is know as a Systemd Service Unit file. Units are created for services, timers, mount points, sockets, swap space, and devices, for example.

  • Exercising to Create Basic Python C Extensions on Fedora Linux 34
  • Julian Andres Klode: Migrating away from apt-key

    This is an edited copy of an email I sent to provide guidance to users of apt-key as to how to handle things in a post apt-key world.

    The manual page already provides all you need to know for replacing apt-key add usage...

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  • How to unmount hard drives on Ubuntu

    If you need to unmount a hard drive in Ubuntu, the fastest and easiest way to do it is with Gnome Disks. Gnome Disks is a disk management tool. With it, users can manage hard drives, USB devices, and everything else storage-related.

  • Introducing the target settings and policies in SELinux - Linux Concept

    Before we embark on the journey of using these four automation frameworks, we need to clarify what we want to accomplish. After all, to truly compare automation frameworks, we need to test each framework with the same tests each time.

  • Linux firewalling and SECMARK support - Linux Concept

    The approach with TCP, UDP, and SCTP ports has a few downsides. One of them is that SELinux has no knowledge of the target host, so cannot reason about its security properties. This method also offers no way of limiting daemons from binding on any interface: in a multi-homed situation, we might want to make sure that a daemon only binds on the interface facing the internal network and not the internet-facing one, or vice versa.

    In the past, SELinux allowed support for this binding issue through the interface and node labels: a domain could be configured to only bind to one interface and not to any other, or even on a specific address (referred to as the node). This support had its flaws though, and has been largely deprecated in favor of SECMARK filtering.

    Before explaining SECMARK and how administrators can control it, let’s first take a quick look at Linux’s netfilter subsystem, the de facto standard for local firewall capabilities on Linux systems.

  • How to Take Screenshots on Ubuntu? 4 Different Methods

    The old wisdom says that a picture is worth a thousand words. The underlying idea is that information conveyed through looking at something is far more effective than hearing or reading a description of it.

    Screenshots are a sleek aid to have at your side, especially if you're trying to explain a complex topic. This guide will cover all the different ways to take screenshots on Ubuntu. So, without further ado, let's dive right in…

  • How to Migrate from CentOS to Oracle Linux

    With the shift in focus from CentOS project to CentOS Stream which will now serve as the upstream to RHEL, a few CentOS alternatives have been floated to replace CentOS 8.

    For while now CentOS has been widely used by small businesses and developers in server environments given that it provides the stability and reliability that RHEL offers at absolutely no cost. Being a rolling release and a Beta version for future RHEL releases, CentOS Stream will certainly not be recommended for production workloads.

  • How to Manually Add Software Repositories in Linux

    When you search for a package on Linux through the command line, your system's package manager looks for the package in various repositories. By default, every Linux distribution has some official repositories that contain stable packages supported by the distro team.

    However, when you try to grab a package not present in the official software repositories, the package manager will display an error. In such situations, what you can do is manually add the third-party repository to your system and then download the package.

    Let's see how you can add new repositories to your system's sources list.

  • How to Get Windows 11 Style System Panel in Ubuntu 20.04, 21.04 | UbuntuHandbook

    The upcoming Windows 11 has leaked online a few days ago. Here’s how to implement the new look and feel in Ubuntu 20.04, and/or Ubuntu 21.04.

    Gnome has a large collection of extensions to get additional and optional functionality. You can use dash to panel to combine the top-bar and the left dock into single. And Arc Menu extension is available to replace the default system app launcher.

  • How To Install OpenCart on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install OpenCart on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, OpenCart is a free open-source eCommerce platform for online merchants. OpenCart provides a professional and reliable foundation from which to build a successful online store. With features like User Management, Multi-Store, Affiliates, Discounts, Product Reviews, Multi-lingual and multiple Payment Gateways, OpenCart is a platform of choice for many online merchants.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the OpenCart free shopping cart system on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • Controlling process communications using SELinux - Linux Concept

    Linux applications communicate with each other either directly or over a network. But the difference between direct communication and networked communication, from an application programmer’s point of view, is not always that big. Let’s look at the various communication methods that Linux supports and how SELinux aligns with them.

  • ( Easy ) Test Your Internet Download Speed in Linux Terminal

    Now one of the things that every modern person wants to know about his internet connection is the network speed. Most people don’t even know if 60 Megabits is a good or bad speed but they know more is better. So in order to understand network speed we have to understand what is good and bad speed? But how to do this in a really short and not boring way? The easy way is to trust us and take our word that speeds grater than 75 Megabits per second are great for home and watching 4k online TV and so on.

    For the more curious readers there is an article on Wikipedia explaining network speeds which you can read from here.

    Now your network speed is divided in two parts, the first part is the external network speed ( the speed after your home router ) and internal speed ( the speed that your home network runs at ). In this article we are interested in our speed after the router ( The speed that the network provider is selling us ) so that we can check if we are getting what they are selling to us. For this to be accurate we have to accept that the internal network speed ( our home LAN ) is capable of reaching the provided by the provider speeds ( for example if we have a 200 Megabit provided to our router, the router has to be capable to operate at gigabit speeds ).

  • A Beginner’s Guide to Software Repositories in Ubuntu

    While installing software on Ubuntu using the command line, you might have noticed the word "repository" often used in the output. If you're new to the whole Linux universe, then this might be a new term for you. What does it mean, and why does your system need these repositories?

    This article will introduce you to the concept of repositories in Ubuntu, along with a brief description of the various types of repositories available to use.

  • TAR vs. TAR.GZ Files: What’s the Difference?

    TAR archives are an integral part of a Linux ecosystem. All the packages that you install on your machine are provided in the form of compressed archives. Some of them have the TAR file extension, while other compressed archives use the TAR.GZ or TAR.BZ2 file format.

    But are TAR and TAR.GZ files essentially the same? And if not, what is the difference between these two file types? You will discover the answers to these questions in this post.

  • Securing high-speed InfiniBand networks in Linux - Linux Concept

    The InfiniBand standard is a relatively recent (in network history) technology that enables very high throughput and very low latency. It accomplishes this by having a very low overhead on the network layer (protocol) and direct access from user applications to the network level. This direct access also has implications for SELinux, as the Linux kernel is no longer actively involved in the transport of data across an InfiniBand link.

    Let’s first look at what InfiniBand looks like, after which we can see how to still apply SELinux controls to its communication flows.

  • Supporting CIPSO with NetLabel and SELinux - Linux Concept

    NetLabel/CIPSO labels and transmits sensitivities across the network. Unlike labeled IPsec, no other context information is sent or synchronized. So, when we consider the communication flows between two points, they will have a default, common SELinux type (rather than the SELinux type associated with the source or target) but will have sensitivity labels based on the sensitivity label of the remote side.

    Part of NetLabel’s configuration are mapping definitions that inform the system which communication flows (from selected interfaces, or even from configured IP addresses) are for a certain Domain of Interpretation (DOI). The CIPSO standard defines the DOI as a collection of systems that interpret the CIPSO label similarly, or, in our case, use the same SELinux policy and configuration of sensitivity labels.

    Once these mappings have been established, NetLabel/CIPSO will pass on the sensitivity information (and categories) between hosts. The context we will see on the communication flows will be netlabel_peer_t, a default context assigned to NetLabel/CIPSO-originated traffic.

    Through this approach, we can start daemons with a sensitivity range and thus only accept connections from users or clients that have the right security clearance, even on remote, NetLabel/CIPSO-enabled systems.

  • Understanding labeled networking in Linux - Linux Concept

    Another approach to further fine-tune access controls on the network level is to introduce labeled networking. With labeled networking, security information passes on between hosts (unlike SECMARK, which only starts when the netfilter subsystem receives the packet, and whose marking never leaves the host). This is also known as peer labeling, as the security information passes on between hosts (peers).

    The advantage of labeled networking is that security information remains across the network, allowing end-to-end enforcement on mandatory access-control settings between systems as well as retaining the sensitivity level of communication flows between systems. The major downside, however, is that this requires an additional network technology (protocol) that can manage labels on network packets or flows.

    SELinux currently supports two implementations as part of the labeled networking approach: NetLabel and labeled IPsec. With NetLabel, two implementations exist: fallback labeling and CIPSO. In both cases, only the sensitivity of the source domain is retained across the communication. Labeled IPsec supports transporting the entire security context with it.

  • Using labeled IPsec with SELinux - Linux Concept

    Although setting up and maintaining an IPsec setup is far beyond the scope of this book, let’s look at a simple IPsec example to show how to enable labeled IPsec on a system. Remember that the labeled network controls on the interface, node, and peer levels, as mentioned earlier, are automatically enabled the moment we use labeled IPsec.

  • Using I2C LCD display With Raspberry PI Pico and MicroPython

    Adding a display to Raspberry PI Pico allows getting real time information from connected devices without using a computer from USB port. I2C LCD displays (with PCF8574 backpack) are one of best solution to keep wiring simple

    In this tutorial I’m going to show you how to connect and use an I2C LCD display to Raspberry PI Pico.

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  • Downlod Youtube videos on Linux Mint 20.1 using GUI APP - Linux Shout

    There are many circumstances where you would need to download some Youtube video on Linux Mint 20.1 for some later use. However, there are many online web applications for getting youtube on PC but here we are going to show a lightweight and very straightforward snap app based on youtube-dl called “Youtube Downloader” for Linux systems.

  • 15 things to do after installing elementary OS | FOSS Linux

    Elementary OS is a beautiful and beginner-friendly Linux distro with a focus on user security and privacy. It is also one of the most highly recommended Linux distros for users looking for a Windows or Mac replacement.

  • How to install Fedora 34 Server | FOSS Linux

    Fedora is an open-source project and an upstream source of the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution. Since Fedora 30, the Fedora project releases five different editions, spins, and platforms for hardware, containers, server, IoT, and cloud.

    Fedora Workstation is an easy-to-use operating system for desktop and laptop users with tools essential for developers. Fedora Server is a powerful operating system with the latest data center technologies.

  • How to install Clipgrab on Linux Mint 20.1 to download videos

    Well, here we see how to install and use Clipgrab on Linux Mint 20.1, Ubuntu 21.04/20.4/18.04 including Debian, Elementary OS, Kali, MX Linux, and others. Also, learn the steps to create its desktop shortcut.

    Clipgrab is a graphics program that can be used to download videos from online multimedia platforms such as YouTube, Vimeo, DailyMotion or Facebook, etc., and convert them if desired ( e.g. to MP3, OGG Vorbis / Theora, or WMV ). It is really handy because if you don’t require video and interested in its audio, then save the media file in Mp3 format. For conversion, FFmpeg is used in the background.

    Its interface is quite clear and simply designed that doesn’t require any guide to understand, even for beginners. Apart from Linux, Clipgrab is available for Windows and Mac OS X and is licensed under GPL3. The best thing is you can search videos using keywords on Clipgrab if you don’t have the URL of a particular video.

    ClipGrab can automatically download videos when a video link is found on the clipboard. It is also possible to use a proxy server.

  • How to Use a Tablet or Phone as a Second Monitor in Linux | Tom's Hardware

    Not everyone has the desk space– never mind the finances – to afford the luxury of a dual-monitor setup. Adding a second display can, however, revolutionize the way you use your PC.

    Deskreen is a free Linux application that provides a clever workaround to this problem, one that makes it possible for you to view multiple windows at once across additional displays without spending anything. Simply put, it enables you to convert other devices, including phones, tablets, laptops, and even smart TVs, into wireless, secondary displays for your computing tasks.

  • How to configure NFS on Linux

    Sharing files between computers and servers is an essential networking task. Thankfully, NFS (Network File System) is available for Linux systems and makes the job extremely easy. With NFS properly configured, moving files between computers is as easy as moving files around on the same machine. Since NFS functionality is built directly into the Linux kernel, it is both powerful and available on every Linux distro, although the configuration can differ slightly between them.

  • How To Install Inkscape on Debian 10 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Inkscape on Debian 10. For those of you who didn’t know, Inkscape is professional quality vector graphics software that runs on Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows desktop computers. It offers a rich set of features and is widely used for both artistic and technical illustrations such as cartoons, clip art, logos, typography, diagramming, and flowcharting.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Inkscape professional quality vector graphics software on a Debian 10 (Buster).

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  • How to Use Zstandard Compression on Linux (With Commands) - Linux Nightly

    Let’s talk about compression. As a Linux user, you’re probably already familiar with longtime staples like gzip, bzip2, and xz. They’ve been around for a while, and most everyone has at least stumbled across them by now, if they’re not actively using them on a regular basis.

    As if there weren’t enough already, there’s a newcomer in the compression arena. Zstandard (often abbreviated to zstd) was released in 2015 and since then has risen sharply in popularity. In the Linux world, official adoption of new standards can be rather slow, but Zstandard is seeing big support by distros such as Arch Linux, which switched from xz to Zstandard for package compression in the official repository back in 2019.

  • I'm Bad With Git Let's Relearn It

    I remember when I was first learning Git I had trouble understand how the commands and how branches work so today we're looking at a simple game could Oh My Git (Not to be confused with the Git prompt) that will walk us through it.

  • Limiting the scope of transitions in SELinux - Linux Concept

    For security reasons, Linux systems can reduce the ability of processes to gain elevated privileges under certain situations or provide additional constraints to reduce the likelihood of vulnerabilities to be exploitable. SELinux developers, too, honor these situations.

  • The context of a process in SELinux - Linux Concept

    As everything in SELinux works with contexts, even processes are assigned a context, also known as the domain. Let’s see how we can obtain this information, how SELinux transitions from one domain to another, and learn how to query the SELinux policy to find more information about these transitions.

  • Modifying file contexts in SELinux - Linux Concept

    We now know how to set SELinux contexts, both directly through tools such as chcon as well as through the restorecon application, which queries the SELinux context list to know what context a file should have. Yet restorecon is not the only application that considers this context list.

  • SELinux file context expressions - Linux Concept

    When we think that the context of a file is wrong, we need to correct the context. SELinux offers several methods to do so, and some distributions even add in more. We can use tools such as chcon, restorecon (together with semanage), setfiles, rlpkg (Gentoo), and fixfiles. Of course, we could also use the setfattr command, but that would be the least user-friendly approach for setting contexts.

  • Keeping or ignoring SELinux contexts - Linux Concept

    Now that we are aware that file contexts are stored as extended attributes, how do we ensure that files receive the correct label when they are written or modified? To set an SELinux context on a filesystem resource, a few guidelines exist, ranging from inheritance rules to explicit commands.

  • Introduction to SELinux file contexts - Linux Concept

    SELinux file contexts are the most important configuration that a system administrator will have to work with when working with SELinux on the system. Contexts for files are generally identified through a label that is assigned to the file. Mislabeled files are a constant source of headaches for sysadmins, and most common SELinux issues are resolved by correcting the SELinux context.

  • Types, permissions, and constraints in SELinux - Linux Concept

    Now that we know more about types (for processes, files, and other resources), let’s explore how these are used in the SELinux policy in more detail.

  • How To Install Spotify on Manjaro 21 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Spotify on Manjaro 21. For those of you who didn’t know, Spotify is a music streaming platform providing DRM-protected content to its subscribers. Spotify operates under a freemium model (basic services are free, while additional features are offered via paid subscriptions). Spotify makes its revenues by selling premium streaming subscriptions to users and advertising placements to third parties.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Spotify streaming player on a Manjaro 21 (Ornara).

  • How to Set Up Flexible File System Storage With LVM in Linux

    Do you want to create many virtual storage volumes on top of a single storage device for easier and flexible administration? Here's how to set up flexible file system storage with Logical Volume Management (LVM).

Try quantum computing with this open source software development kit

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Classical computing is based on bits. Zeros and ones. This isn't because there's some inherent advantage to a binary logic system over logic systems with more states—or even over analog computers. But on-off switches are easy to make and, with modern semiconductor technology, we can make them very small and very cheap.

But they're not without limits. Some problems just can't be efficiently solved by a classical computer. These tend to be problems where the cost, in time or memory, increases exponentially with the scale (n) of the problem. We say such problems are O(2n) in Big O notation.

Read more

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  • How to use SSH tunneling or port forwarding – Linux Hint

    Creating a secure connection between the local host and the remote host is called SSH tunneling or port forwarding. All connections made by SSH tunneling are encrypted. This feature of SSH is useful for many purposes, such as managing the database of the restricted server safely, implementing basic VPN (Virtual Private Network), using different services without opening port on the firewall, etc. SSH port forwarding can be done in three different ways. These are local port forwarding, remote port forwarding, and dynamic port forwarding. The ways to use SSH tunneling or port forwarding have been explained in this tutorial.

  • How to use SSH config file – Linux Hint

    Creating a secure connection between the local host and the remote host is called SSH tunneling or port forwarding. All connections made by SSH tunneling are encrypted. This feature of SSH is useful for many purposes, such as managing the database of the restricted server safely, implementing basic using different services without opening port on the firewall, etc. How to use SSH tunneling or port forwarding is explained in this article.

  • What is the Difference: useradd vs. adduser Linux with Examples – Linux Hint

    While managing users, Linux administrators need to manage different types of users based on the privileges he/she wants to set. User management includes access control and Group management of the user. It is often seen that when we create users in Linux, there are two types of commands available useradd and adduser. This post will have an overview of both commands and discuss some key differences between them.

  • Rename Linux Files with Rename – Linux Hint

    When working with files, renaming them is one of the most basic actions. In Linux, renaming a file or directory is mostly done using mv. However, when it comes to renaming multiple files or folders, using mv becomes complex. It requires constructing complex loops and piping to get the job done. The rename command is specifically designed for such situations.

    Rename is a powerful batch renaming tool that uses Perl expression to rename multiple files and directories in a single command. In this guide, check out how to rename files with rename.

  • Linux Two-factor Authentication – Linux Hint

    Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a login process consisting of a double authentication mechanism. Most known implementations include the classic SMS or email code confirmation for new/unknown browsers and devices.

    In this scenario, even if a hacker gets a PayPal or hosting password, he won’t be able to log in without the confirmation code sent to the victim’s phone or email.

    Implementing the two-factor authentication is one of the best practices to protect our email, social network accounts, hosting, and more. Unfortunately, our system is not the exception.

    This tutorial shows how to implement the two-factor authentication to protect your SSH access using Google Authenticator or Authy-ssh. Google Authenticator allows you to verify a login using the mobile app, while Authy-ssh can be implemented without an app using SMS verification.

  • Gunnar Wolf: Fighting spam on roundcube with modsecurity

    Every couple of months, one of my users falls prey to phishing attacks, and send their login/password data to an unknown somebody who poses as… Well, as me, their always-friendly and always-helpful systems administrator.

    What follows is, of course, me spending a week trying to get our systems out of all of the RBLs/DNSBLs. But, no matter how fast I act, there’s always distruption and lost mails (bounced or classified as spam) for my users.

    Most of my users use the Webmail I have configured on our institute’s servers, Roundcube, for which I have the highest appreciation. Only that… Of course, when a user yields their username and password to an attacker, it is very successful at… Sending huge amounts of unrequested mail, leading to my server losing its reputation

  • How to Analyze Fonts in a PDF File Using pdffonts

    Choosing the right font for your documents can be hard if you don't know much about typography and design. But if you have a document with a font that you like, you can easily extract the font name through the command line. All you need is a tool called pdffonts.

    In this article, you will learn about pdffonts and how to install it on your computer. You'll also find a detailed guide on how to identify fonts in a PDF document using it.

  • How to migrate VMware VMs to AWS with ease
  • Why You Should Not Use Telnet for Remote Connections

    If you need to connect to a remote computer using the command line, you might be tempted to use Telnet, one of the oldest protocols still in use on the internet. But you shouldn't, because it's not safe for your digital privacy.

    This article will discuss the reasons why you shouldn't use Telnet and what other secure protocols you can use to connect to servers remotely.

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  • Handling SELinux roles - Linux Concept

    We saw how SELinux users define the role(s) that a user can hold. But how does SELinux enforce which role a user logs in through? And when logged in, how can a user switch their active role?

  • How Do I Find Parent Process in Linux – Linux Hint

    During the execution of a program, the kernel creates a process that helps store the program’s execution details in the system’s memory. When a program executes, it becomes a process for the system. So, we can say a process is a program until it executes.

    The process created by the kernel is known as the “Parent Process,” and all the processes derived from the parent process are termed as “Child Processes.” A single process may consist of several child processes having a unique PID but with the same PPID.

  • How do I fix SSH permission denied public key – Linux Hint

    The Secure Shell (SSH) key is the access credential for SSH protocol. Although the SSH protocol supports multiple approaches for authentication, the Public key is considered one of the best ways that help in automated and interactive connections.

    While working on the unsecured open networks, the SSH protocol helps for remote connections among different devices. Using this, users can transfer the files remotely and also manage the network.

    As there are multiple devices on the unsecured networks, the SSH uses a set of keys, i-e Private Key and Public Key, to create a secure connection between devices remotely.

  • How to Catch All Exceptions in Python – Linux Hint

    Programmers frequently classify exceptions as code faults that result in errors whenever the program is executed. Exceptions represent errors that take place as a result of a script. Some programmers still can’t tell the difference between mistakes as well as exceptions. The majority of such errors seem logical. In Python, exceptions are caught using straightforward logic. Whenever a Python interpreter encounters an exception, it terminates the workflow. It is dealt with by going through the calling procedure. The software will crash if this is not done.

  • How to Install Memcached on Ubuntu 21.04 - Unixcop

    Memcached is a general-purpose distributed memory-caching system. It is often used to speed up dynamic database-driven websites by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times an external data source (such as a database or API) must be read. Also it is a high performance free and opensource in-memory key-value store used as a caching system. It’s mainly used for speeding up database-driven sites and web applications by caching data in RAM. In so doing, it significantly reduces the frequency that an eternal source of data read.

    Memcached was first developed by Brad Fitzpatrick for his website LiveJournal, on May 22, 2003. It was originally written in Perl, then later was rewritten in C by Anatoly Vorobey, then employed by LiveJournal. Memcached now used by many other systems

    Memcached is simple and easy to deploy and its API is widely available for a wide range of popular programming languages such as Python.

  • How to Install Package to a Specific Directory Using Yum – Linux Hint

    Installing packages in any Linux-based Operating system is like a task that happens on a daily basis, and it is seen that we often need to install some packages for a brief period. However, the packages required for very little time stay inside our system and consume the disk space.

    In a system where we have fewer resources in terms of disk space, the disk space stays almost full, and we have to keep check on unwanted applications and packages and remove them from time to time.

    For such scenarios where you have to install and use some packages for a short period, it is a better practice and recommended to install the packages in some specific or temporary directory. The directory will stay separate from all other package clusters, and you can easily remove the packages.

  • How to configure authorized_keys of SSH on Ubuntu – Linux Hint

    SSH or Secure Shell is designed to access the content of the remote host for doing different types of tasks remotely. SSH is not installed on Ubuntu by default. The SSH can provide password-protected encrypted access to the remote system after the installation. The SSH server runs on the remote host, and the SSH client runs on the system that will establish the remote connection. The authorized_keys file is the most important part of the SSH connection. It specifies the keys used to authenticate the users permitted to log into the remote host using public-key authentication. The uses of this file for the SSH connection have explained in this tutorial.

  • How to see rsync progress? – Linux Hint

    rsync is a popular tool for synchronization files between two computer systems. It is a valuable utility for syncing files locally and remotely. This file transfer and synchronization tool are often seen in Linux or Unix-based systems. For saving network bandwidth, rsync employs a type of delta encoding. This delta encoding enables rsync to send only the differences between the destination and the source files.

  • SELinux users and roles - Linux Concept

    In SELinux-enabled environments, the login binary calls the libselinux API to establish the initial mapping between SELinux users and local users. Then, after finding the right SELinux user, the system looks up the role and domain that the user should be in and sets that as the user’s context.

  • User-oriented SELinux contexts - Linux Concept

    Once logged in to a system, our user will run inside a certain context. This user context defines the rights and privileges that we, as a user, have on the system.

  • A comprehensive guide on how to use MySQL | FOSS Linux

    MySQL is the globe’s most popular open-source database software used to manage the relational database. Besides having powerful features, it is fast, scalable, and easy to use than Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle database. As a result, PHP scripts are commonly used for creating powerful and dynamic server-side/web-based applications.

    Note: A database is a structured collection of data

    SQL is an abbreviation for Structured Query Language, and it is the standardized language used to access the database.

  • Navicat for MySQL | FOSS Linux [Ed: Not FOSS but proprietary though]

    If you have been facing challenges related to MySQL/MariaDB administration and/or development and are in dire need of an ideal solution, then look no further than Navicat for MySQL. With Navicat for MySQL existing as a single application, making a MySQL or MariaDB database connection is easy and simultaneous.

    Navicat for MySQL shares awesome compatibility with cloud database infrastructures like Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud, Amazon RDS, Google Cloud, and Amazon Aurora. If you are looking for a reliable solution to manage, develop, and maintain databases, the all-inclusive frontend nature of Navicat for MySQL is intuitive and graphically powerful enough to get the job done.

    This database administration solution is applicable and supported by popular OS environments like Windows, macOS, Linux, and iOS.

  • Document Typeset with LaTeX and TeXstudio on Fedora – Part 2 | FOSS Linux

    LaTeX is a free and open-source software for typesetting documents. It is a preparation system for high-quality typesetting and the defacto for large technical documents, computer science, and mathematics documents. For example, you can use LaTeX to create math formulas, equations, cover letters, present assignments or thesis, or edit presentations, syllabi, and exams.

    Leslie Lamport originally wrote LaTeX to extend the functionality of the TeX typesetting engine by Donald Knuth. Technically, LaTeX is a set of macros and commands for the programming language TEX.

    This article is the second part of our LaTeX typesetting series. You can refer to Part 1 for a comprehensive introduction to LaTeX, learn about page designs, formatting, tables, lists, and how to work with graphics. Part 2 will cover how to typeset math formulas, cross-references, listing contents, and bibliographies.

  • Install and Use Glances to monitor Ubuntu 20.04 Server or desktop

    Let’s see the steps and commands to install Glances on the monitoring tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and start keeping track of system processes and resources.

    Glances is a system monitor for the command line. Compared to the classic top and htop, the program offers process information as well as additional real-time statistics on the file system, network, hardware components, etc. It has a ncurses interface and can be easily operated with the keyboard. It was created with Python and the library psutil, thus, supports any major platform having python installed such as Windows, macOS, Linux, FreeBSD, and Android.

    If you want to monitor a remote computer, you can use the integrated web server in addition to an SSH connection, server/client mode, or API (XML-RPC and RESTful). Stats can also be exported to files or external time/value databases such as InfluxDB, Cassandra, CouchDB.

today's howtos

Filed under
HowTos
  • Playbooks, host vars, group vars

    This is part of a series of posts on ideas for an ansible-like provisioning system, implemented in Transilience.

  • Systemd Timers for Scheduling Tasks - Fedora Magazine

    Cron can schedule a task to be run at a granularity ranging from minutes to months or more. It is relatively simple to set up, requiring a single configuration file. Although the configuration line is somewhat esoteric. It can also be used by general users.

    Cron, however, fails if your system happens to not be running when the appropriate execution time occurs.

    Anacron, overcomes the “system not running” issue. It insures that the task will be executed when your system is again active. While it was intended to be used by administrators, some systems give general users access.

    However, the anacron frequency of execution can be no less than daily.

    Both cron and anacron have issues with consistency in execution context. Care must be taken that the environment in effect when the task runs is exactly that used when testing. The same shell, environment variables and paths must be provided. This means that testing and debugging can sometimes be difficult.

    Systemd timers offer the best of both cron and anacron. Allows scheduling down to minute granularity. Assures that the task will be executed when the system is again running even if it was off during the expected execution time. Is available to all users. You can test and debug the execution in the environment it will run in.

    However, the configuration is more involved, requiring at least two configuration files.

    If your cron and anacron configuration is serving you well then there may not be a reason to change. But systemd is at least worth investigating since it may simplify any current cron /anacron work-arounds.

  • How to play Just Cause 3 on Linux

    Just Cause 3 is a 2015 action-adventure game developed by Avalance Studios and published by Square Enix. In this game, the player controls Rico Rodriguez as he returns to his homeland of Medici. Here’s how to play it on Linux.

  • How to Install Windows After Ubuntu Linux in Dual Boot

    When it comes to dual boot, the general idea is that you have a system preinstalled with Windows and then you install Linux alongside Windows. On the boot, you select whether you want to use Windows or Linux.

    How about the opposite situation? What if you have a system that has only Linux installed on it and you want to install Windows alongside Linux in dual boot mode?

    In this tutorial, I’ll show you exactly how you can install Windows after Ubuntu Linux in dual boot.

  • How to Install The Latest Sigil EPUB Ebook Editor 6.0 in Ubuntu 20.04, 21.04 | UbuntuHandbook

    For those sticking to the latest Sigil ebook editor, here’s Ubuntu PPA maintains the 6.0 release packages for Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 21.04, Linux Mint 19 & 20.

    Sigil is a free and open-source ebook editor designed to edit books in ePub format (both ePub 2 and ePub 3). The software offers official binary packages only for Windows and Mac OS.

    The editor in Ubuntu repositories is always old. And no Flatpak or Snap package for Sigil. So far, using a third-party PPA is the only way besides compiling from the source tarball.

  • MySQL Security Tips » ADMIN Magazine

    MySQL security configurations include a range of topics, along with their possible effects on MySQL servers and corresponding applications. In this article, I look at MySQL security encryption services, account-associated authorization systems, and other required security precautions to ensure protection against misuse and attacks. This security guide will help you protect sensitive data, even if the MySQL service is compromised at some point.

    Most of the advanced MySQL security configurations require changes to the server's main configuration file my.cnf. This file is generally located inside the /etc/mysql directory or in the /opt/lampp/etc/ folder for LAMPP installations. However, you can locate the file with the find or locate command in Linux.

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More in Tux Machines

Fete de la Musique and why I don’t use Google

Today is Fete de la Musique in the French-speaking world. It feels like the perfect time to release the video of former GNOME employee Magdalen Berns singing Zombie. I recorded this at the Google Mentor Summit in 2014. Magdalen is no longer with us, she died of cancer in 2019. If Magdalen was alive today, would she recognize the GNOME organization? People are gradually coming to realize that the recent attacks on Dr Richard Stallman crossed far too many red lines. Working for a non-profit organization is a privilege and when certain GNOME employees attacked a volunteer, Dr Stallman, they undermined the principle of volunteering everywhere. We already see people who signed the petition in the heat of the moment are asking to remove their names. The choice of the song's title is subject to debate. Are zombies the people trying to stamp out independent thought from leaders like Dr Stallman? Or are they the volunteers silenced by mindless groupthink? Read more

The best 10 videos conferencing tool for enterprises in 2021

Some problems are just too big and complex for any one person who handles them alone, for these challenges we need to collaborate, but what that means? Read more Also: Mike Gabriel: BBB Packaging for Debian, a short Heads-Up

today's howtos

  • How to install Raspberry Pi OS with desktop on Raspberry Pi 4

    The Raspberry Pi 4 is seriously impressive, with some considerable hardware improvements over the Pi 3. As a result, many are picking it up to use as a Linux computer. One of the best operating systems to run on the Pi 4 is Rasberry Pi OS. Here’s how to get it set up.

  • How To Install Froxlor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Froxlor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Froxlor is an open-source lightweight server management control panel to effectively manage web hosting, domain names, FTP accounts, email accounts, support tickets, and customers that are associated with them and are licensed under GPL. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Froxlor server management panel on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to Enable / Configure Multi-Touch Gestures in Ubuntu 20.04 & Higher | UbuntuHandbook

    This simple tutorial shows how to enable & configure the multi-touch gestures in Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 21.04, Ubuntu 21.10 using touchegg. For those running Ubuntu on laptop or PC with external touchpad, multi-finger gestures enable users with more actions to control your system. Since Ubuntu does not offer a utility to configure multi-touch functions, touchegg is a free open-source tool to enable this feature for you. And it supports for both global gestures or gestures for Firefox, Chromium, Google Chrome only.

  • How To Get Public IP From Command Line

    In this tutorial we’ll learn how to get Public IP address from Terminal or Command Line. This will be useful to find public IP address of a cloud instance like EC2 instance, Lightsail instance, or DigitalOcean Droplets. We can also use this method to find Public IP of a VPS or any bare metal server that have Public IP Address.

Audiocasts/Shows: XPLR, GNU World Order, and Emacs

  • XPLR: Insanely Hackable Lua File Manager

    My main file manager is LF and most of the file managers I look at are of the same style but today is different, today we're looking at XPLR which is a single pane file manager with extra sub windows that can be 100% customized in Lua.

  • GNU World Order 412

    **gcc-go** and **gcc-java** from the **d** software series of Slackware.

  • Transform Words Into Pretty Symbols In Emacs

    Emacs has a really neat mode built into it called prettify-symbols-mode. You add a block of code into your Emacs config listing words and corresponding symbols. Anytime you type one of the words, Emacs replaces with the symbol or emoji that you specify.