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HowTos

today's howtos

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HowTos
  • Linux: Delete file & folder using command line terminal - Linux Shout

    As we know Linux is slightly different from Windows for various tasks even in deleting files and folders. And here we will see the quick Linux commands to delete a file and directory using the terminal.

    However, just like in Windows, system files or the important folders are only accessible by admin, in Linux, they are under sudo or root users. Therefore, if want to delete any system file on Linux using GUI, then you should log in as root but that is a bit risky because you don’t want to run all your applications under an admin user.

  • Automate setup and delivery for virtual machines in the cloud | Opensource.com

    If you're a developer or hobbyist using a Fedora qcow2 image for the cloud, you always have to do a bunch of initial configuration before an image is ready to use. I know this all too well, and I was eager to find a way to make the setup process simpler. As it happens, the entire Fedora quality assurance team feels the same way, so we developed Testcloud.

  • How to Run a Shell Script in Linux [Essentials Explained]

    Using #! /bin/bash indicates that the script is bash shell script and should be run with bash as interpreter irrespective of the shell which is being used on the system. If you are using zsh specific syntax, you can indicate that it is zsh script by adding #! /bin/zsh as the first line of the script.

  • Simple guide to secure Redis Installation - The Linux GURUS

    In our previous tutorial, we learned how we can install Redis on the Ubuntu server & CentOS/RHEL server. But if we leave the installed Redis service to default state i.e. with default configurations, it might be susceptible to intrusions. So we should know how we can secure the Redis installation to avoid unauthorized access or operations on our Redis server.

    There are a number of things we can do to secure the Redis installation. We will now list them down one by one.

  • Running syslog-ng in Bastille – revisited

    Bastille is a container management system for FreeBSD, similar to Docker or Podman on Linux. The historical name of containers on FreeBSD is jail, and they appeared a lot earlier than containers on Linux. Managing jails was not always easy. When I started to use this technology in production in 2001, nothing was automated. Using Bastille, you can easily create, configure, or update jails at scale. It has a template system to install applications in containers and there is a template also for syslog-ng.

  • Oracle Linux Virtualization Manager: Administration and Deployment made easy with short training videos

    In this week's Training Tuesday blog we will begin with the first in a series of blogs about Oracle Linux Virtualization Manager training videos. Each blog provides pointers to free, short videos that you can take at your own pace to get a better at understanding of the product.

    Oracle Linux Virtualization Manager is a server virtualization management platform, based on the oVirt open source project, that can be easily deployed to configure, monitor, and manage an Oracle Linux Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) environment with enterprise-grade performance and support from Oracle. This environment also includes management, cloud native computing tools, and the operating system, delivering leading performance and security for hybrid and multi-cloud deployments.

today's howtos

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HowTos
  • How To Change The Default Shell In Linux - Linux Uprising Blog

    This article explains how to change the default shell in Linux. Using this you can set Bash, sh, Zsh, Csh, Fish, etc. as your shell.

    The article includes instructions for changing the login shell from the command line using chsh, or changing the shell only for a particular terminal application. While the article is targeted at Linux users, this should also work on other Unix-like systems.

  • How To Enable Minimize And Maximize Buttons In Fedora - OSTechNix

    Today, we will see one of the post installation steps in Fedora desktop. This brief guide explains how to enable minimize and maximize buttons in application windows in Fedora Workstation and Silverblue editions.

    As you may already know, there is no minimize and maximize buttons in Application windows in Fedora Silverblue as well as Fedora Workstation editions. If you want to minimize an application window, you need to right click on its title bar and choose the minimize option from the context menu. Unfortunately, you don't even get that option in Firefox with your mouse. To minimize Firefox window, you should hit the Left ALT+SPACEBAR keys and choose Minimize option.

    I don't know what is the benefit of hiding most frequently used buttons. Ubuntu GNOME desktop has the min/max buttons, but Fedora hasn't. If you want to bring back the minimize and maximize buttons in Fedora GNOME and Silverblue editions, you can enable them with the help of Gnome Tweaks utility and Dash to Panel extension in Fedora.

  • How to Find Top 10 Running Processes by Memory and CPU Usage

    Linux is quite popular for its command-line utilities, which not only make any task at hand easier but also saves a lot of time, which is otherwise wasted in graphical UI based utilities.

    This is one of the reasons why Linux is a preferred operating system for servers and administrative machines. Combine the knowledge of Linux commands and shell scripting and you have a proper toolkit of system administration at your disposal.

    Today we will see how to see the top 10 heaviest memory and CPU resource-consuming processes in Linux using a command-line tool called ps command, which is used to display information about running processes in Linux.

  • How to Install Ansible on Ubuntu 20.04

    Ansible is an Infrastructure as Code tool that allows its users to control many servers from a centralized location. The benefit of using Ansible is that it uses SSH along with YAML files for configuration without any need to require other configurations. In this tutorial, I will describe how to install and configure Ansible on an Ubuntu 20.04 system.

  • How to Upgrade a Single Package in Ubuntu

    On Ubuntu to install newer versions of the packages we run apt-get update followed by apt-get upgrade commands. This will update all installed packages which have new versions available in the repositories.

    In some situation we have to upgrade only a single package such as PHP, Apache or Nginx.

  • How to Self-host Plausible Analytics [Complete Guide]

    As an ethical website, we try to keep Linux Handbook as much Google and tracking free as possible. In that regard, we refrain from using Google Analytics for website traffic measurement.

    Instead, we use Plausible Analytics. It is a simple, lightweight (<1 KB), open-source and privacy-friendly alternative to Google Analytics (GA).

    It may not give you as many details as GA, but it gives you an idea about the traffic you are getting on your website along with the bounce rate and visit duration.

    You can also see which pages are getting most visits, from where your website is getting the traffic, bounce rate and duration on page. You can also measure traffic based on geographical region and devices.

  • How to View and Change Boot Sequence in Linux Terminal

    Have you ever had a need to change your boot sequence via terminal? Maybe you're doing so remotely via SSH, or maybe you can't manage to get into the BIOS during that two second sweet spot when your computer is first turned on. In this article, we'll explain how to easily change the boot sequence via terminal.

  • How to create Cloudwatch alarms for RDS (MySQL) on AWS

    Monitoring your RDS instances is very important, and the same applies to other resources. In this article, we will create a simple alarm for an RDS MySQL instance which will check for free storage space on the instance. There are different metrics too which can be used to create alarms, click here to see the list of available metrics for RDS instances. The "FreeStorageSpace" metric checks for the storage space available on the instance and depending upon the condition specified the alarm gets triggered and sends notifications to SNS Endpoint. The "FreeStorageSpace" metric accepts the value in bytes and not percent.
    Before we proceed with this article, I assume you are aware of the basics of RDS instances and already have one in your account to create alarms for.

  • How to Send An Email With File Attachment from Command Line

    The key to becoming an advanced Linux user is to use more of the command line and less of the GUI; more of the keyboard and less of the mouse! As the diaspora of Linux command-line tools grows, not only administrative but several non-administrative, in fact, crucial day-to-day tasks, are performed using the command line.

Write GIMP scripts to make image processing faster

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GNU
HowTos

Some time ago, I wanted to give a blackboard-style look to a typeset equation. I started playing around with the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) and was satisfied with the result. The problem was that I had to perform several actions on the image, I wanted to use this style again, and I did not want to repeat the steps for all the images. Besides, I was sure that I would forget them in no time.

GIMP is a great open source image editor. Although I have been using it for years, I had never investigated its batch-processing abilities nor its Script-Fu menu. This was the perfect chance to explore them.

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today's howtos

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  • How to Install and Use Fail2ban on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8

    Top on the list of every IT operation team is ensuring that servers are secure from unauthorized users or malicious scripts. There are a number of solutions that you can apply to ward off attacks and breaches. Among them is the implementation of the Fail2ban software tool.

    Fail2ban is an open-source intrusion detection measure that mitigates brute-force attacks that target various services such as SSH, and VSFTPD to mention a few. It comes with an array of filters – including SSH – that you can customize to update the firewall rules and block unauthorized SSH login attempts.

    The fail2ban utility monitors the server’s log files for any intrusion attempts and blocks the IP address of the user after a predefined number of failed attempts for a specified duration. The user’s IP is placed in a ‘jail’ which can be set, enabled, or disabled in the /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf configuration file. This way, it helps to secure your Linux server from unauthorized access, and more specifically from botnets and malicious scripts.

  • How to install WPS Office 2019 on Linux Mint 20.1 - YouTube

    In this video, we are looking at how to install WPS Office 2019 on Linux Mint 20.1.

  • Installing Google Chrome on Fedora Linux – Linux Hint

    Google Chrome is one of the top browsers for all platforms. It’s a product released by Google. The browser comes with numerous features, including synchronization with Google services, fast performance, fast performance, etc.

    In this guide, check out how to install Google Chrome on Fedora Linux.

  • How to install TupiTube Desk on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install TupiTube Desk on a Chromebook Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

  • How to install Spreed WebRTC Server on Ubuntu | FOSS Linux

    preed isn’t like any other video chat platform – it is much better and powerful in every way. It is a free and open-source audio/video call server designed with privacy in mind. Spreed uses WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication), which enables web browsers and mobile apps to communicate in real-time via APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). WebRTC enables peer-to-peer communication making it possible for audio and video to work inside web pages.

    Additionally, Spreed WebRTC uses end-to-end encryption, thus ensuring ultimate privacy and security to users’ data.

  • How to Use Btrfs Scrub? – Linux Hint

    The Btrfs filesystem is a multi-device filesystem that has built-in support for RAID. In a multi-device Btrfs filesystem or RAID, the data/metadata blocks may be stored in one or more storage devices. The Btrfs scrub tool will read all the data/metadata blocks from all the storage devices added to a Btrfs filesystem or RAID and find all the corrupted data/metadata blocks. Once the corrupted data/metadata blocks are found, the Btrfs scrub tool will automatically repair those corrupted data/metadata blocks if possible.

    In a multi-device Btrfs filesystem or Btrfs RAID, depending on the filesystem configuration, there may be multiple copies of the data/metadata blocks stored in different locations of the storage devices added to the Btrfs filesystem. When the Btrfs scrub tool finds a corrupted data/metadata block, it searches all the storage devices added to the Btrfs filesystem for duplicate copies of that data/metadata block. Once a duplicate copy of that data/metadata block is found, the corrupted data/metadata block is overwritten with the correct data/metadata block. This is how the Btrfs scrub tool repairs corrupted data/metadata blocks in a multi-device Btrfs filesystem or Btrfs RAID.

  • How to Use Btrfs Balance? – Linux Hint

    The Btrfs filesystem has built-in multi-device support, so you can create different levels of RAID using it.
    Once you’ve created a Btrfs RAID, you can add more storage devices to the RAID to expand the RAID. But, once you have added more storage devices to the RAID, Btrfs won’t spread the existing data/metadata/system-data to the new storage devices automatically. So, you may not get the desired throughput (read/write speed) out of the RAID, and it may not be able to populate the new storage devices with the required redundant data. So, the RAID array may fail to survive the desired number of drive failures.

    To solve these problems, the Btrfs filesystem provides a built-in balancing tool. The Btrfs balance utility will spread the data/metadata/system-data of the existing storage devices of the RAID to the newly added storage devices.

    In this article, I am going to show you how to use the Btrfs balance utility to spread the data/metadata/system-data of the existing storage devices of the RAID to the newly added storage devices. So, let’s get started!

  • How to Install and Configure NIS Server on Debian 10? – Linux Hint

    NIS stands for Network Information Service, and it is used extensively for sharing configuration data about different systems across the whole network. In today’s article, we will be talking about the methods of installing and configuring this server on a Debian 10 system.

  • How to Install Swift in Debian 10 – Linux Hint

    Swift is a famous language that was developed by Apple to create software applications. Swift is an open-source language that is used as a fast and interactive programming language to develop various software for all platforms and servers. Writing a Swift code is interactive since the syntax is quite concise. Swift also contains multiple features that are useful for developers. The code written in Swift is safe for designing and extremely fast, as well. This article shows you how to install Swift on a Debian 10 server.

    This tutorial will be of great help to all Debian users who wish to install Swift on their computers. We will be using Debian 10, but even if you do not have the latest version of Debian installed on your system, feel free to follow the same procedure on your computer.

  • How to Enable Automatic Updates on Ubuntu 20.04

    One of the crucial administration roles that any sysadmin is tasked to do is to ensure that the security patches and feature updates are regularly applied. Security updates address pre-existing vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious users to breach the system. Delayed patching of system packages may result in system breaches where confidential information is access and exfiltrated. Manually updating packages on Ubuntu - and any Linux system for that matter - is a tedious task and wastes a lot of your precious time. This is time that could have been spent elsewhere performing more productive tasks. As a workaround, configuring automatic updates on a Linux server comes highly recommended. In this guide, we walk you through how to enable automatic updates on Ubuntu 20.04.

  • How to Configure LDAP Client in Debian 10 – Linux Hint

    LDAP is an acronym for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. LDAP allows users to store the usernames and passwords of users in a single place. This place is then used by multiple services for validating the users claiming these services. To use a service, you always need to have a client-end program that can help you to access that service. This article shows you how to install and configure the LDAP client on your Debian 10 system.

  • GPT vs. MBR Booting

    Most of the time, we let our computers’ boot just happen, but sometimes we need to control it. One of those times is when you want to dual boot. The way your disk is organized affects what you need to do and think about. The way computers boot and have been booting is by using the Master Boot Record. That was the old way, but you will still see partitioning software give you the option to use this system. GPT means GUID Partition Table; it was introduced to address BIOS limitations, one being the size of disk it can address. To use GPT, you must have a UEFI based computer. In 2021, you do! Just watch out for decades-old hardware if you are a tinkerer. Note that you can still keep using MBR if you wish to do so.

  • 4 Ways to Install Firefox Browser 85 in Ubuntu / LinuxMint / CentOS

    This tutorial will be helpful for beginners to download and install Mozilla Firefox 85 in Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 18.04, Linux Mint 20.1, and CentOS 8.1 / 7.x.

    Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla foundation and generally utilized by thousands and thousands of individuals in their daily actions.

    Firefox 85 Started its development in November Mid 2020 and released its stable version 85 on Jan 25, 2021 and it is ahead of its official release date for all supported OS Platforms.

today's howtos

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  • An Introduction to Bash Brace Expansion - Putorius

    The Borne Again Shell (BASH) has a lot of great features that it borrows from other shells and even from some programming languages. It was created in the late 1980s in a response to a lacking in the current available shells on Berkley Distributions (BSD), and the predecessor to Linux, GNU. BASH features numerous in-built features such as in-line scripting capabilities like brace expansion, which we are going to examine today.

  • How to Convert PDF to Image in Linux

    For many reasons, you often need to convert PDF documents to different image formats. You can find many online sites that easily convert PDF to images, but there is no guarantee your file will be secure always. You can easily do it in your own Linux system.

    This article is going to show you to convert pdf to other image formats (jpg, png, gif, tif) using the following two popular methods.

  • How to Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 | RoseHosting

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Gitea with Nginx as a reverse proxy on an Ubuntu 20.04 VPS.

  • How to Search, Install, Remove Snap Apps in Command Line | UbuntuHandbook

    This simple tutorial shows how to search for, install, remove, and list installed Snap applications in Ubuntu from command line.

    Snap is an universal Linux package format developed by Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu. Though many users hate the Snap apps, it’s hard to keep away from it since many popular applications (e.g., VLC, Spotify, VS Code, Android Studio) offer official Ubuntu binaries through Snap rather than classic deb package.

    As Ubuntu Software still sucks and does not load application pages quite often, you can run followings command instead to search for & install snap applications.

  • How to install Jellyfin Media Server on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Linux Shout

    When it comes to creating your own Medis server, the first name would be Kodi or Plex, however, these are not only out there. Jellyfin is another popular open-source project that lets us create quickly a modern media server with an interactive web user interface to manage videos, images, and music from any device.

    We can browser media content using Jellyfin on various devices such as computers, apps on your Roku, Android, iOS (including AirPlay), Android TV, or Fire TV device, or via your Chromecast or existing Kodi. Whereas when it comes to installing the Jellyfin server platform it doesn’t limit to Linux only, we can set it up on machines running Microsoft Windows, macOS, or in a Docker container.

  • Why you need to drop ifconfig for ip | Opensource.com

    For a long time, the ifconfig command was the default method for configuring a network interface. It served Linux users well, but networking is complex, and the commands to configure it must be robust. The ip command is the new default networking command for modern systems, and in this article, I'll show you how to use it.

    The ip command is functionally organized on two layers of the OSI networking stack: Layer 2 (data link layer) and Layer 3 (network or IP layer). It does all the work in the old net-tools package.

today's howtos

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  • How to Install Xrdp on Ubuntu 20.04

    Xrdp is an open-source equivalent of Microsoft’s Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). With xrdp installed on a Linux system, users can remotely access the Linux desktop using an RDP client as we shall demonstrate later in this article. It’s completely free to download and use.

    Without much further ado, let’s see how you can install Xrdp on Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 and 18.04.

  • How to Symlink a File in Linux

    A symbolic link, also known as ‘Symlink‘ is a special type of file in Linux, which is used for the purpose of pointing to another file. The symlink does not contain any other data apart from the disk address of the file to which the symlink is pointing to.

    Symlinks are particularly useful as shortcut files; where you can have the symlink of a program/application on your desktop/home folder, instead of the program file and its dependencies.

  • How to Install Wine 5.0 on Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint

    Wine is an open-source, free and easy-to-use program that enables Linux users to run Windows-based applications on Unix-like operating systems. Wine is a compatibility layer for installing almost all versions of Windows programs.

    Wine 6.0 is finally released and it comes with an array of numerous enhancements and a total of 40 bug fixes. You can find out all the new features and changelog of this new release on the Wine announcement project page.

  • How to Install Wine 6.0 in Ubuntu

    Wine is a nifty utility that allows users to run Windows applications inside a Linux environment. Wine 6.0 is finally out, and it ships with an array of numerous improvements and a total of 40 bug fixes.

  • How to Change Open File Limit in Linux

    In Linux, there are limits defined by the system for anything that consumes resources. For example, there are limits on how many arguments can be passed to a certain command, how many threads can run at the same time, etc.

    Similarly, there is a limit on the number of open files. As you might know, an open file is actively being used in some of the other programs and hence consumes memory.
    You can view and modify the open file limit with the command ‘ulimit‘.

  • How to Install GVM Vulnerability Scanner on Ubuntu 20.04

    GVM (Greenbone Vulnerability Management) is an open-source solution for vulnerability scanning and vulnerability management. GVM was previously known as OpenVAS.

    Greenbone Vulnerability Manager and OpenVAS are widely used by a number of people in the World including security experts and common users alike who used this all in one suite of tools that works together to run the tests against client computers using its own database of known weaknesses and exploits.

    In this article, we will show How to install and setup GVM on Ubuntu 20.04 to make sure that your servers are protected against attacks.

  • How To Install Wine on Debian 10 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Wine on Debian 10. For those of you who didn’t know, Wine is a free and open-source use that allows users to run Microsoft Windows applications in a Linux environment. In the present day, Wine is a must-have tool to get Linux users who don’t want to be able to let go of Windows native software especially gamers.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step by step installation of Wine on a Debian 10 (Buster).

  • How to boot multiple ISO images from one USB drive on Linux

    A bootable USB drive allows you to instantly run a full-fledged OS from the file system on the USB drive, rather than from the host computer's hard drive. Such capability is quite useful in various scenarios, for example, when you need to diagnose and repair a corrupted file system of a host computer, or when you want to test drive an alternative OS or the latest release of your favorite Linux distro before installing it. You can easily create a bootable USB by burning an ISO image on a USB drive with tools like Gparted or UNetbootin. There is nothing fancy.

    However, for people like me who would like to try out all sorts of Linux distros and different releases of each distro for testing purposes, as part of writing tutorials, what would be nice is the ability to boot multiple ISO images from a single USB drive. However, a typical bootable USB drive or memory stick can only boot from a single ISO file stored on the drive. It is not only inconvenient as I need to re-format the USB drive with a new ISO file every time I need to boot from a different ISO file, but also quite wasteful as a typical USB drive has much bigger space than a single ISO image. Although it's possible to boot ISO files using GRUB, it's rather cumbersome to modify GRUB configuration each time you want to add a new ISO file to try. Also, the GRUB-based approache does not provide the portability of a USB drive.

  • How to compress PDF files on Linux | FOSS Linux

    PDFs offer us one of the most convenient ways of sharing images. However, by stuffing tons of data such as images and graphics, the PDF file size can get too big to share via emails. If you are also suffering from this issue, you have come to the right place. Here, we will show you how to compress a PDF file in Linux to reduce its size drastically. And don’t worry, we have included both GUI and Terminal methods in this tutorial.

  • How to fix error : Conda command not found

    If you have already installed Miniconda and cannot run the commands in the terminal while using zsh, you may find the following helpful.

    In case you have already added the appropriate path environment variable to bashrc and bash_profile files, you would need to add the Miniconda folder directory to the PATH environment variable of zsh shell.

  • How to set up SSH dynamic port forwarding on Linux | Enable Sysadmin

    Dynamic port forwarding allows for a great deal of flexibility and secure remote connections. See how to configure and use this SSH feature.

  • Introduction to ContainerJFR: JDK Flight Recorder for containers

    OpenJDK has long been a top pick for real-world applications and workloads, chosen for its blend of performance, compatibility, reliability, and observability. For many years, JDK Flight Recorder (JFR) and JDK Mission Control (JMC) have contributed to OpenJDK’s success. Until recently, both were commercial features, however, available only for certain users and workloads.

    In 2018, JDK Mission Control and JDK Flight Recorder were open-sourced. JDK Flight Recorder is now built into the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) for later releases of OpenJDK 8 and all versions from OpenJDK 11 onward. Open-sourcing these tools brings their power—always-on, near-zero overhead production profiling and monitoring, application-specific custom events, and unified-core JDK analytical tooling—to all JDK users. On the downside, JDK Mission Control and JDK Flight Recorder have emerged into a world rapidly moving toward containerization, which is not the paradigm that they were designed for.

    The desktop-only JDK Mission Control application requires developers and administrators to access flight recordings on the local disk. Otherwise, one resorts to a complex and potentially insecure setup to connect directly to applications over Java Management Extensions (JMX) in the cloud. Similarly, the bare-metal-focused JDK Flight Recorder allows JVMs to dump recordings into the local filesystem, but not when the application runs inside a container. In that case, the filesystem is not easily accessible from the outside world, and it isn’t possible to retrieve and analyze recordings.

today's howtos

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  • Install and Configure Grafana on Kubernetes

    We are going to deploy Grafana to visualise Prometheus monitoring data.

  • How to Install and Use Docker on Ubuntu 20.04 | 18.04

    Docker is a free, open-source and cross-platform containerization tool that helps you to deploy and run the application in an isolated environment. Docker has become one of the most important parts of modern software development and DevOps pipelines.

  • How to Find Cheap Linux VPS? [Ed: Potentially a bit spammy (the links in there)]

    VPS stands for a Virtual Private Server. This is a virtual machine that is commonly used for hosting a web site. You can buy a VPS from a hosting provider companies such as Routerhosting, and based on your requirements. Each VPS provides you a private resource on a server to host your website. Likewise, you can use a shared VPS that is more affordable but in low security. Another noticeable factor for selecting a perfect VPS is operating system. The operating system that you select for VPS will have a strong impact on your business or the field of your action. There are two options available including Windows VPS and Linux VPS. Although there are many basic functions that are common between them, but selecting the OS completely depends on users and their preferences. As you know Linux VPS is more popular than Windows. You can easily find a cheap Linux VPS with great speed, function, and security.

  • 4 ways to identify your current shell (if it’s bash)

    Knowing which run you are using on your system is an important piece of information. Your shell determines your login environment to a large extent as it controls which environment variables get exported, your shell prompt etc. On a Linux system it’s almost certain that you will using the bash shell unless the system administrator has deliberately changed it to something else. In this quick article we will demonstrate four ways you can determines if you are running the bash shell or not.

  • Alan Pope: The Black Oblong of Monospace Mystery

    I originally titled this post “Don’t be afraid of the command line”, but decided “Black Oblong of Monospace Mystery” was more fun. Is the command line really scary? It doesn’t feel like that to me, but I grew up with an interface which looks like this on first boot.

  • What Is DNS Server?

    What is DNS Server? DNS stands for Domain Name System. This is actually a service that runs on all of our computers but majorly it runs the entire internet. We type a website in the browser and with the bling of our eyes the website is open. Have you ever wondered how does that happen? In today’s article, we will learn the process of how the website opens so fast and how DNS plays an important role in this process.

    We already know that every website is saved in a server that is located somewhere in the world. We need to reach this server and ask for the website homepage. In order to reach this Server, we need the address. When we want to visit a person in real life, we need his home address but in the world of the internet, we need the logical address. Internet Protocol, also known as IP Address is the logical addressing system.

    In order to reach a website we need to enter its server IP in the browser and the server will reply with the homepage. Initially, when the internet was in its infancy, people kept the record of IP addresses. Gradually, the internet because huge, and keeping the record of IP addresses was a challenge. The markers of the Internet knew that humans are very good at remembering names than numbers. They came up with the idea of a DNS Server.

  • How to install Proton VPN on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install Proton VPN on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

  • How to Install AppImage in Linux

    AppImage is format for packaging applications which is self-contained. It is the universal software package format compatible with various Linux distribution. In the traditional system of installing software packages, you need to download, extract and install on various directories of the system. But with the AppImage there is no extraction, no installation, no root permission, you just download the single package, make it executable and run it with a single click. It includes all the compressed image, dependencies, and libraries needed to run the software. Even to uninstall the application, you will just remove the AppImage file.

Ubuntu Mate On The Raspberry PI 400

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Ubuntu
HowTos

In a previous article I reviewed the desktop version of Ubuntu on the Raspberry PI 4.

I came up against quite a few issues whilst using Ubuntu on the PI 4 with the main one being performance. In my opinion running the GNOME desktop on a Raspberry PI is never going to work because GNOME takes too many resources. This isn’t a criticism of GNOME because on a laptop with higher specifications it is a decent desktop environment.

I received a few criticisms and comments during that review. One of the criticisms was that I should have overclocked the Raspberry PI 4.

The main comment that I received multiple times is that I should have used Ubuntu Mate.

So here we are. I have installed Ubuntu Mate and I have been using it for about a month and I am going to share with you my experience.

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Tiny Core Linux Installation and Review

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Linux
Reviews
HowTos

The OS architectures supported by Tiny Core Linux are x86. X86_64, and ARM processors. It may not be a complete package for a functional Linux distro or flavor, but the freedom and flexibility it offers is out of the box. Under Tiny Core Linux, you get to push your OS around rather than your OS pushing you around like in other platforms. The speed and simplicity under this Linux distro cannot be substituted. Moreover, the absence of a Desktop environment distractions under its user experience is another plus. It gifts you the perfect tinkering experience due to its lightweight nature.

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today's howtos

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  • Install Oracle Virtualbox 6.1.18 in Ubuntu 20.04 / CentOS 8 & Fedora

    Virtualbox an open-source application for running operating systems virtually in our base system and this application available for multiple operating systems (ie) Windows, Linux, and macOS.

    It has a large number of features, high performing software used in enterprise-level and licensed under General Public License (GPL). It is developed by a community based on a dedicated company.

    This tutorial will be helpful for beginners to install Oracle VirtualBox 6.1.18 in Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 19.10, CentOS 8 / Redhat 8, and Fedora.

  • How To Install Docker on Linux Mint 20

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Docker on Linux Mint 20. For those of you who didn’t know, Docker is an open-source project that automates the deployment of the application inside the software container. The container allows the developer to package up all project resources such as libraries, dependencies, assets, etc. Docker is written in a Go Programming language and is developed by Dot cloud. It is basically a container engine that uses the Linux Kernel features like namespaces and control groups to create containers on top of an operating system and automates the application deployment on the container.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step by step installation of Docker on a Linux Mint 20 (Ulyana).

  • How to Secure Email Server Against Hacking with VPN (CentOS/RHEL)

    In this tutorial, I’m going to share with you my tips and tricks to secure CentOS/RHEL email servers against hacking with a self-hosted VPN server. Many spammers are trying to hack into other people’s email servers. If successful, they would use the hacked email server to send large volumes of spam or steal valuable data. Why do we use a self-hosted VPN server? Because it allows you to enable whitelisting, so only trusted users connected to the VPN server can access your mail server.

  • Fixed compile of libvdpau-va-gl in OE

    I posted yesterday about the problem in OpenEmbedded when the compile of a package requires execution of a binary:
    https://bkhome.org/news/202101/fixed-compile-of-samba-without-krb5-in-oe.html
    This problem does not occur if the build-architecture and target-architectures are the same. The problem occurs with a cross-compile.
    Today I had the same problem, with package 'libvdpau-va-gl'. I had previously compiled this in OE, but now the build-arch is x86_64 and the target-arch is aarch64.

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Free Software Leftovers

  • Ingo Juergensmann: Migrating from Drupal to WordPress

    If you can read this on planet.debian.org then migrating my blog from Drupal to WordPress was successful and the feed has been successfully changed by the Debian Planet Maintainers (thanks!). I’ve been a long term Drupal user. I think I started to use Drupal since it was included in Debian. At some point Drupal was removed from Debian and I started to use Serendipity instead. Later Drupal was included in Debian again and I moved back to Drupal. I think this must have been around Drupal 4 or Drupal 5. No idea. I even became active in the Drupal community and went to one of the first Drupal barcamps in Germany, namely in Cologne. This was shortly before Dries Buytaert started a business off of Drupal and went to the USA. I met with many devs of Drupal in Cologne and enjoyed the community and started with others a local Drupal User Group in Rostock. [...] So, after all the years my Drupal journey will come to an end. It was a long time with you. Sometimes joyful, sometimes painful. I wish you all the best, Drupal!

  • The round-the-world trip to fix a bug

    Mrs. Vera Cavalcante (@veracape), from Brazil, a long-time contributor for the Portuguese documentation on LibreOffice, was reviewing the translation of the Calc Guide and double-checking the translated text, with respect to the current user interface and the Help pages. Vera noticed that the Help pages on conditional formatting were not correct any more, and reported in the Brazilian team Telegram group (Bugzilla is still very hard for non-native English speakers).…

  • Red Kubes Container Platform Flies Open Source Flag

    Red Kubes, a Dutch-based startup, open sourced a free community edition of its Otomi Container Platform in a bid to remedy the ongoing complexity surrounding Kubernetes configurations. The scalability, agility, and speed-to-market advantages that Kubernetes offers have been handsome enough to capture a growing share of the enterprise market, but this very strength can become an Achilles heel for container deployments. In this sense, it’s far too easy – and common – to create thousands or even tens of thousands of containers across applications. Not only does this create an operational money pit, but management becomes a herculean feat to any container newbie.

  • The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache® ECharts™ as a Top-Level Project

    The Apache Software Foundation (ASF), the all-volunteer developers, stewards, and incubators of more than 350 Open Source projects and initiatives, announced today Apache® ECharts™ as a Top-Level Project (TLP). Apache ECharts is an intuitive, interactive, and powerful charting and visualization library ideally suited for commercial-grade presentations. The project originated in 2013 at Baidu and entered the Apache Incubator in January 2018.

  • Shots fired in disputes over OSS-as-a-Service

    Cloud services are the great disruptor of both IT organizations and vendors, and wrapping open source software around a service is the latest flashpoint. The open source development model has proven to be an incredible incubator of innovative software by democratizing and distributing the conception, design, implementation and debugging of new titles, advantages that were thoroughly explored more than two decades ago in the book, The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Although open source has since been adopted, encouraged and sponsored by every major software company, its origins were decidedly non-commercial with utopian overtones of liberating code from the tyranny of proprietary shackles. The earliest open source projects, notably Gnu Emacs and other tools from the Gnu Project, embraced this idealistic ethos with a restrictive, comprehensive license, GPL, that applies to derivative work using the code.

  • AWS to Fork Elasticsearch as Elastic Moves Away from Open Source

    Elastic’s license change from open source ALv2 to SSPL appears to have moved Amazon Web Services to “launch new forks of both Elasticsearch and Kibana.” Elasticsearch’s move towards the more restrictive Server Side Public License has already begun to ruffle feathers among developers.

Programming Leftovers

  • Excellent Free Tutorials to Learn Tcl - LinuxLinks

    Tcl (Tool Command Language) is a dynamic programming/scripting language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells. Here's our recommended free tutorials to learn Tcl.

  • ROC and Precision-Recall curves - How do they compare?

    Both curves offer two useful information: how to choose the positive class prediction threshold and what is the overall performance of the classification model. The former is determined by selecting the threshold which yield the best tradeoff, in adequation with the prediction task and operational needs. The latter is done by measuring the area under the curves which informs about how good the model is, because by measuring the area under the curves, one computes the overall probability that a sample from the negative class has a lower probability than a sample from the positive class. With scikit-learn, the values can be computed either by using the roc_auc attribute of the object returned by plot_roc_curve() or by calling roc_auc_score() directly for ROC curves and by using the average_precision attribute of the object returned by plot_precision_recall_curve() or by calling average_precision_score() directly for PR curves.

  • Write GIMP scripts to make image processing faster | Opensource.com

    Some time ago, I wanted to give a blackboard-style look to a typeset equation. I started playing around with the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) and was satisfied with the result. The problem was that I had to perform several actions on the image, I wanted to use this style again, and I did not want to repeat the steps for all the images. Besides, I was sure that I would forget them in no time.

  • Bash wait Command | Linuxize

    wait is a command that waits for the given jobs to complete and returns the exit status of the waited for command. Since the wait command affects the current shell execution environment, it is implemented as a built-in command in most shells. In this article, we’ll explore the Bash built-in wait command.

  • Santiago Zarate: Cron do not send me empty emails
  • Rust & the case of the disappearing stack frames | Inside Rust Blog

    Now that the FFI-unwind Project Group has merged an RFC specifying the "C unwind" ABI and removing some instances of undefined behavior in the "C" ABI, we are ready to establish new goals for the group. Our most important task, of course, is to implement the newly-specified behavior. This work has been undertaken by Katelyn Martin and can be followed here.

Open Hardware: Raspberry Pi, Arduino, Thomas Petazzoni (Bootlin) on Training

  • Qsync fixed on the Pi4 and FF compiled

    The Raspberry Pi4 does not have a hardware battery-backed clock, so relies on getting the date and time from an Internet time server. In EasyOS, Qsync is the utility that does that. At first bootup, QuickSetup has a checkbox to enable getting time from the Internet, which will launch Qsync. At first bootup on the Pi4, if you are going to connect to Internet via wifi, not ethernet, then there won't be an immediate Internet access. No problem, Qsync will run once the Internet connection is established. Qsync will run just once at bootup and after Internet connection. That's fine, but I couldn't understand why it would suddenly stop working. Then discovered that /etc/init.d/qsync was getting its executable-flag cleared.

  • Arduino Blog » This children’s console looks like something straight out of a superhero’s lair

    Kids have wonderful imaginations, and to help students at a primary school have a super time, creator “palladin” was asked to construct a console for them to use. The device features a variety of lights and sci-fi additions, including glowing “reactor” tubes that diffuse light using hair gel and a “memory bank” that emits flashing patterns for a 1950s supercomputer look.

  • Arduino Blog » This pen plotter draws detailed maps the size of walls

    Christopher Getschmann wanted a wall-sized map of the world. He soon realized, however, that it’s tough to actually buy such a map that’s both beautiful and detailed enough to satisfy his cartographic tastes. While many would simply move on to the next “thing,” Getschmann instead took things into his own hands, and built a pen plotter specifically to draw massive 2×3 meter map for his wall.

  • New training course: embedded Linux boot time optimization

    For many embedded products, the issue of how much time it takes from power-on to the application being fully usable by the end-user is an important challenge. Bootlin has been providing its expertise and experience in this area to its customers for many years through numerous boot time optimization projects, and we have shared this knowledge through a number of talks at several conferences over the past years. We are now happy to announce that we have a new training course Embedded Linux boot time optimization, open for public registration. This training course was already given to selected Bootlin customers and is now available for everyone.

Red Hat/Fedora Leftovers

     
  • A brief introduction to Ansible roles for Linux system administration

    In this part one of two articles, learn to use rhel-system-roles with your Ansible deployment to better manage functionality such as network, firewall, SELinux, and more on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers.

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  • From Docker Compose to Kubernetes with Podman | Enable Sysadmin

    Use Podman 3.0 to convert Docker Compose YAML to a format Podman recognizes.

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  • Fedora Community Blog: Software Management (RPM, DNF) 2020 retrospective

    On behalf of the RPM and DNF teams, I would like to highlight changes that have appeared in our packages in 2020. Thanks everyone for your bug reports and patches!

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  • Application and data resiliency for Kubernetes

    Using tools like Red Hat OpenShift and Red Hat OpenShift Container Storage, organizations are developing and deploying more stateful applications and microservices at an accelerating pace. According to a recent Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG) research study, 41% of companies currently use containers for production applications. Another 33% use containers for dev/test and pre-production only but plan to use containers for production applications in the next 12 months.

  • Red Hat Introduces Data Resilience for Enterprise Kubernetes Applications

    Red Hat, Inc., the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today introduced new data resilience capabilities for cloud-native workloads with the release of Red Hat OpenShift Container Storage 4.6. This offering from Red Hat Data Services enables customers to extend their existing data protection solutions and infrastructure to enhance data resilience for cloud-native workloads across hybrid and multicloud environments.

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  • Why Red Hat killed CentOS—a CentOS board member speaks

    This morning, The Register's Tim Anderson published excerpts of an interview with the CentOS project's Brian Exelbierd. Exelbierd is a member of the CentOS board and its official liaison with Red Hat. Exelbierd spoke to Anderson to give an insider's perspective on Red Hat's effective termination of CentOS Linux in December, in which the open source giant announced CentOS Linux was to be deprecated immediately—with security upgrades to CentOS Linux 8 ending later in 2021 rather than the 2029 end of support date CentOS users expected.